彩虹女神跃长空,Go语言进阶之Go语言高性能Web框架Iris项目实战-JWT和中间件(Middleware)的使用EP07

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彩虹女神跃长空,Go语言进阶之Go语言高性能Web框架Iris项目实战-JWT和中间件(Middleware)的使用EP07

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前文再续,上一回我们完成了用户的登录逻辑,将之前用户管理模块中添加的用户账号进行账号和密码的校验,过程中使用图形验证码强制进行人机交互,防止账号的密码被暴力破解。本回我们需要为登录成功的用户生成Token,并且通过Iris的中间件(Middleware)进行鉴权操作。

Iris模板复用

在生成Token之前,首先我们需要对项目的模板进行优化改造,目前存在的页面模板有三块,分别是:首页模板(index.html)、登录页模板(signin.html)、后台用户管理页模板(/admin/user.html),虽然页面并不多,但不难发现,有很多重复的代码,比方说,首页模板和登录页模板都有公共的头部导航菜单,没必要每个模板都写一遍相同的代码,再比如,三块模板都会有axios的封装逻辑,也没必要三块模板封装三次,除此之外,以后模板多了,不做复用,就会出现维护困难的问题。

首先提取页面模板的公共部分,比如头部导航,在views目录建立header.html:

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          <div class="react-toggle-track-x"><img src="data:image/png;base64,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" width="16" height="16" role="presentation" style="pointer-events: none;"></div></div><div class="react-toggle-thumb"></div></div>  
  
        <div class="search navbar-right" >  
          <form action="/Index_search" method ="GET" class="search_form" >  
            <input type="search" name="text" class="search_input" placeholder="Search" required="required" >  
          </form>  
        </div>  
  
  
      </div>  
      
    </div>  
  </nav>
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随后,在需要头部导航的模板进行引入操作,比如修改signin.html:

${ render "header.html" }
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注意,使用${}是为了避免和前端的Vue.js标签冲突。

同样地,将封装axios.js逻辑单独抽取出来myaxios.html:

<script>  
  
const myaxios = function (url, type, data = {}) {  
  
return new  
  
    Promise((resolve) => {  
  
        if (type === "get" || type === "delete") {  
  
  
            axios({  
  
                method: type,  
                url: url,  
                params: data  
            }).then((result) => {  
  
                resolve(result.data);  
  
            });  
  
  
        } else {  
  
            const params = new URLSearchParams();  
            for (var key in data) {  
            params.append(key,data[key]);  
            }  
            axios({  
  
                method: type,  
                url: url,  
                data:params  
            }).then((result) => {  
  
                resolve(result.data);  
  
            });  
  
        }  
  
    });  
  
}  
  
</script>
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然后在需要的地方进行引入操作:

${ render "myaxios.html" }
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如此,我们只需要维护模板的公共部分即可。

修改后,项目的结构如下:

.  
├── README.md  
├── assets  
│ ├── css  
│ │ └── style.css  
│ └── js  
│     ├── axios.js  
│     └── vue.js  
├── database  
│ └── database.go  
├── favicon.ico  
├── go.mod  
├── go.sum  
├── handler  
│ ├── admin.go  
│ └── user.go  
├── main.go  
├── model  
│ └── model.go  
├── mytool  
│ └── mytool.go  
├── tmp  
│ └── runner-build  
└── views  
    ├── admin  
    │ └── user.html  
    ├── admin_header.html  
    ├── header.html  
    ├── index.html  
    ├── myaxios.html  
    ├── signin.html  
    └── test.html
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JWT生成逻辑

JSON Web Token (JWT)是一个互联网应用的开放标准(RFC 7519),它定义了一种紧凑的、自包含的方式,用于作为JSON对象在各方之间安全地传输信息,这种信息可以被验证和信任,因为它是数字签名的。

说白了,登录成功以后,生成一个 JSON 对象,返回给前端,就像下面这样:

{  
"uid":1  
}
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这之后,用户与服务端通信的时候,所有请求都要带着这个JSON 对象。服务器完全只靠这个对象认定用户身份。为了防止JSON对象被篡改,服务器在生成这个对象的时候,会加上签名,变成这种模样:

eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJVaWQiOjEsImlhdCI6MTY2MTg0MjYxMCwiZXhwIjoxNjYxODQ1NjEwfQ.BXK9awvVCk7L3JAnDGt9z6U9TOjPCpI0AcHRu1eq_mo
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这玩意就是普遍意义上的Token,俗称“令牌”。

在我们的项目中,需要为登录校验通过的账号生成Token,首先安装jwt包:

go get -u github.com/kataras/iris/v12/middleware/jwt
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随后修改本地的工具包mytool.jwt:

package mytool  
  
import (  
	"crypto/md5"  
	"fmt"  
	"io"  
	"time"  
  
	"github.com/dchest/captcha"  
	"github.com/kataras/iris/v12"  
	"github.com/kataras/iris/v12/middleware/jwt"  
)  
  
  
var SigKey = []byte("signature_hmac_secret_shared_key")  
  
type PlayLoad struct {  
	Uid uint  
}  
  

func GenerateToken(uid uint) string {  
  
	signer := jwt.NewSigner(jwt.HS256, SigKey, 50*time.Minute)  
	claims := PlayLoad{Uid: uid}  
  
	token, err := signer.Sign(claims)  
	if err != nil {  
		fmt.Println(err)  
  
	}  
  
	s := string(token)  
  
	return s  
  
}


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众所周知,Token由三部分组成:头部、载荷以及秘钥。这里SigKey字符为签名秘钥,PlayLoad结构体为载荷信息,这里通过签名生成一个字符格式的token,注意返回前端时,需要强转为字符串。

需要注意的是,生成签名时使用的是HS256算法,同时为了确保安全性,token设置生命周期,这里为50分钟。

随后修改用户登录逻辑,将生成好的token返回给前端:

//登录动作  
func Signin(ctx iris.Context) {  
  
	ret := make(map[string]interface{}, 0)  
  
	cid := ctx.PostValue("cid")  
	code := ctx.PostValue("code")  
  
	if captcha.VerifyString(cid, code) == false {  
  
		ret["errcode"] = 2  
		ret["msg"] = "登录失败,验证码错误"  
		ctx.JSON(ret)  
		return  
  
	}  
  
	db := database.Db()  
	defer func() {  
		_ = db.Close()  
	}()  
  
	Username := ctx.PostValue("username")  
	Password := ctx.PostValue("password")  
  
	user := &model.User{}  
  
	db.Where(&model.User{Username: Username, Password: mytool.Make_password((Password))}).First(&user)  
  
	if user.ID == 0 {  
  
		ret["errcode"] = 1  
		ret["msg"] = "登录失败,账号或者密码错误"  
		ctx.JSON(ret)  
		return  
  
	}  
  
	token := mytool.GenerateToken(user.ID)  
  
	fmt.Println(token)  
  
	ret["errcode"] = 0  
	ret["msg"] = "登录成功"  
	ret["username"] = user.Username  
	ret["token"] = token  
	ctx.JSON(ret)  
  
}
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前端接收的返回值为:

{  
    "errcode": 0,  
    "msg": "登录成功",  
    "token": "eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJVaWQiOjEsImlhdCI6MTY2MTg0MzI5MSwiZXhwIjoxNjYxODQ2MjkxfQ.547z3nv4qj2-UeHTzfeG_qSsnFZD2DFyCP9gNZ-QiHA",  
    "username": "123"  
}
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随后前端收到token后,将其存储localstorage,然后跳转到后台页面:

//登录请求  
                signin:function(){  
  
  
                    this.myaxios("http://localhost:5000/signin/","post",{"username":this.username,"password":this.password,"cid":this.cid,"code":this.code}).then(data => {  
                        console.log(data)  
                        alert(data.msg);  
  
                        localStorage.setItem("token",data.token);  
  
                        window.location.href = "/admin/user/"  
  
                    });  
  
                }
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localStorage存储是永久的,如果对安全性要求较高,可以采用sessionStorage,token生命周期就会跟随浏览器进程,但之前设置的token生命周期就没意义了,各有利弊,各自权衡。

中间件(Middleware)鉴权

所谓中间件,是一类提供系统软件和应用软件之间连接、便于软件各部件之间的沟通的软件,应用软件可以借助中间件在不同的技术架构之间共享信息与资源。

说白了,就是在所有需要鉴权的接口前面加一层逻辑,便于批量管理和控制:

verifier := jwt.NewVerifier(jwt.HS256, mytool.SigKey)  
	  
  
	verifyMiddleware := verifier.Verify(func() interface{} {  
  
		return new(mytool.PlayLoad)  
	})
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这里声明中间件变量verifyMiddleware,该变量会返回一个载荷结构体对象。

随后,为所有的后台接口、包括后台模板添加中间件:

adminhandler := app.Party("/admin")  
	  
  
	adminhandler.Use(verifyMiddleware)  
  
	adminhandler.Get("/userlist/", handler.Admin_userlist)  
	adminhandler.Delete("/user_action/", handler.Admin_userdel)  
	adminhandler.Put("/user_action/", handler.Admin_userupdate)  
	adminhandler.Post("/user_action/", handler.Admin_useradd)  
	adminhandler.Get("/user/", handler.Admin_user_page)
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如此,所有后台操作都需要中间件的鉴权操作。

换句话说,如果请求地址中没有token或者token不合法,就不会返回正常数据。

访问:http://localhost:5000/admin/user 如图所示:

如果带着token:

当然了,之后所有的后台请求都需要携带token,所以改造上面封装的myaxios.html:

<script>  
  
var mytoken = localStorage.getItem("token");  
  
  
const myaxios = function (url, type, data = {}) {  
  
return new  
  
    Promise((resolve) => {  
  
        if (type === "get" || type === "delete") {  
  
  
            axios({  
  
                method: type,  
                url: url+"?token="+mytoken,  
                params: data  
            }).then((result) => {  
  
                resolve(result.data);  
  
            });  
  
  
        } else {  
  
            const params = new URLSearchParams();  
            for (var key in data) {  
            params.append(key,data[key]);  
            }  
            axios({  
  
                method: type,  
                url: url+"?token="+mytoken,  
                data:params  
            }).then((result) => {  
  
                resolve(result.data);  
  
            });  
  
        }  
  
    });  
  
}  
  
</script>
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藉此,每个后端请求都会携带token。

结语

JWT形式的认证体系将用户状态分散到了客户端中,相比于服务端的session存储,可以明显减轻服务端的内存压力,此外,使用Iris中间件鉴权的方式有助于提高代码的重用性,也更便于维护,更加优雅。该项目已开源在Github:github.com/zcxey2911/I… ,与君共觞,和君共勉。

分类:
后端
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