Java18的新特性

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Java语言特性系列

本文主要讲述一下Java18的新特性

版本号

java -version
openjdk version "18" 2022-03-22
OpenJDK Runtime Environment (build 18+36-2087)
OpenJDK 64-Bit Server VM (build 18+36-2087, mixed mode, sharing)
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从version信息可以看出是build 18+36

特性列表

JEP 400: UTF-8 by Default

java18以前Charset.defaultCharset()是根据操作系统、user locale等来决定的,导致不同操作系统的默认charset是不一样,这次统一改为了UTF-8 java18要统一为UTF-8则需要-Dfile.encoding=UTF-8来设置 如果还想沿用以前的判断方式则可以通过-Dfile.encoding=COMPAT来设置

JEP 408: Simple Web Server

提供了一个类似python的SimpleHTTPServer(python -m SimpleHTTPServer [port])的开箱即用的HTTP文件服务器 可以通过jwebserver -p 9000启动

jwebserver -p 9000
Binding to loopback by default. For all interfaces use "-b 0.0.0.0" or "-b ::".
Serving /tmp and subdirectories on 127.0.0.1 port 9000
URL http://127.0.0.1:9000/
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也可以在代码里定制并启动

jshell> var server = SimpleFileServer.createFileServer(new InetSocketAddress(8080),
   ...> Path.of("/some/path"), OutputLevel.VERBOSE);
jshell> server.start()
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JEP 413: Code Snippets in Java API Documentation

以前要在通过javadoc展示代码可以使用@code如下

<pre>{@code
    lines of source code
}</pre>
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但是它的缺点就是得用pre包装,导致该片段不能包含html标签,而且缩进不太灵活

而这次给javaDoc引入了@snippet标签,无需对html标签再进行转义

/**
 * The following code shows how to use {@code Optional.isPresent}:
 * {@snippet :
 * if (v.isPresent()) {
 *     System.out.println("v: " + v.get());
 * }
 * }
 */
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也可以直接引用源代码,避免javadoc的代码与实际代码脱节

/**
 * The following code shows how to use {@code Optional.isPresent}:
 * {@snippet file="ShowOptional.java" region="example"}
 */
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JEP 416: Reimplement Core Reflection with Method Handles

通过Method Handles重新实现java.lang.reflect.Method, Constructor及Field来替代字节码生成的Method::invoke, Constructor::newInstance, Field::get, and Field::set的实现 方便支持Project Valhalla,为以后减少扩展成本

JEP 417: Vector API (Third Incubator)

JDK16引入了JEP 338: Vector API (Incubator)提供了jdk.incubator.vector来用于矢量计算 JDK17进行改进并作为第二轮的incubatorJEP 414: Vector API (Second Incubator) JDK18进行改进并作为第三轮的incubator

JEP 418: Internet-Address Resolution SPI

给解析网络地址提供了SPI,即java.net.spi包的InetAddressResolverProvider 方便给project loom做准备(目前InetAddress的API会阻塞在系统调用),也方便定制化及testing

JEP 419: Foreign Function & Memory API (Second Incubator)

JDK14的JEP 370: Foreign-Memory Access API (Incubator)引入了Foreign-Memory Access API作为incubator JDK15的JEP 383: Foreign-Memory Access API (Second Incubator)Foreign-Memory Access API作为第二轮incubator JDK16的JEP 393: Foreign-Memory Access API (Third Incubator)作为第三轮,它引入了Foreign Linker API JDK17引入JEP 412: Foreign Function & Memory API (Incubator)作为第一轮incubator JDK18则作为第二轮的incubator

JEP 420: Pattern Matching for switch (Second Preview)

instanceof的模式匹配在JDK14作为preview,在JDK15作为第二轮的preview,在JDK16转正

static String formatterPatternSwitch(Object o) {
    return switch (o) {
        case Integer i -> String.format("int %d", i);
        case Long l    -> String.format("long %d", l);
        case Double d  -> String.format("double %f", d);
        case String s  -> String.format("String %s", s);
        default        -> o.toString();
    };
}
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JDK17引入JEP 406: Pattern Matching for switch (Preview) JDK18则作为第二轮的preview

JEP 421: Deprecate Finalization for Removal

废弃finalize方法方便后续移除

细项解读

上面列出的是大方面的特性,除此之外还有一些api的更新及废弃,主要见JDK 18 Release Notes,这里举几个例子。

添加项

  • SerialGC、ParallelGC、ZGC支持String Deduplication

可使用-XX:+UseStringDeduplication开启

  • Map from an Element to its JavaFileObject

新增Elements.getFileObjectOf(Element)来映射为JavaFileObject

可以使用-XX:GCCardSizeInBytes来设置card table大小

允许G1的heap regions的最大值从之前的32MB到512MB

  • JDK Flight Recorder Event for FinalizationJDK-8266936

新增jdk.FinalizerStatistics

移除项

  • Removal of Google's GlobalSign Root CertificateJDK-8225083

移除了google的GlobalSign根证书

  • Removal of Empty finalize() Methods in java.desktop ModuleJDK-8273102

移除java.desktop模块里头的空finalize()方法

  • Removal of impl.prefix JDK System Property Usage From InetAddressJDK-8274227

移除impl.prefix属性,转而使用InetAddressResolver这个spi

  • Removal of Support for Pre JDK 1.4 DatagramSocketImpl ImplementationsJDK-8260428

移除jdk1.4之前的DatagramSocketImpl

  • Removal of Legacy PlainSocketImpl and PlainDatagramSocketImpl ImplementationsJDK-8253119

移除java.net.SocketImpl及java.net.DatagramSocketImpl的老实现PlainSocketImpl、PlainDatagramSocketImpl jdk.net.usePlainDatagramSocketImpl属性也一并移除

废弃项

完整列表见deprecated-list

废弃javax.security.auth.Subject::doAs为移除做准备

  • Deprecated sun.misc.Unsafe Methods That Return OffsetsJDK-8277863

sun.misc.Unsafe中objectFieldOffset, staticFieldOffset, staticFieldBase方法被废弃

废弃Thread.stop为后续移除做准备

  • Obsoleted Product Options -XX:G1RSetRegionEntries and -XX:G1RSetSparseRegionEntriesJDK-8017163

废弃-XX:G1RSetRegionEntries-XX:G1RSetSparseRegionEntries

已知问题

  • Extended Delay Before JDK Executable Installer Starts From Network DriveJDK-8274002

在 Windows 11 和 Windows Server 2022 上,从映射的网络驱动器启动时,临时安装文件的提取可能会有些缓慢。安装程序仍然可以工作,但可能会有暂时的延迟。

小结

Java18主要有如下几个特性

doc

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