ansible基本应用

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1. ansible特性:

  • ansible糅合了众多老牌运维工具的优点,基本上pubbet和saltstack能实现的功能全部能实现。
  • 部署简单:不需要在被管控主机上安装任何客户端,操作客户端时直接运行命令。
  • 基于python语言实现,有Paramiko, PyYAML和Jinja2三个关键模块。
  • 模块化:调用特定模块完成特定任务。可使用任意语言开发模块,且支持自定义模块。
  • 使用yaml语言定制剧本playbook。
  • 基于SSH作

2. ansible的模块

  • connection plugins:连接插件,通过ssh方式
  • host inventory:主机清单,要管理的主机
  • playbooks:剧本,yaml格式的配置文件
  • core modules:核心模块
  • custom modules:自定义模块
  • plugins:插件 - email:发送邮件。 - loggings:记录日志

3. 安装

ansible放置位置:

  • 外网主机:可通过VPN连接为内网主机进行管理
  • 内网主机:直接管理

ansible的安装: 配置好epel源,直接通过yum安装

~]# yum -y install ansible
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ansible的配置文件:/etc/ansible/ansible.cfg ansible的主机清单:/etc/ansible/hosts **ansible的主程序:**ansible、ansible-playbos、ansible-doc

4. ansible命令的使用:

[root@nfs ~]# ansible -h
Usage: ansible <host-pattern> [options]
Options:
  -a MODULE_ARGS, --args=MODULE_ARGS
                        module arguments   模块参数
  -C, --check           don't make any changes; instead, try to predict some
                        of the changes that may occur  干跑模式
  -m MODULE_NAME, --module-name=MODULE_NAME
                        module name to execute (default=command)  指定模块名称
  --syntax-check        perform a syntax check on the playbook, but do not execute it
  						语法检测
  -f FORKS, --forks=FORKS
                        specify number of parallel processes to use (default=5)
                        同时启用多少个线程,默认5个
  -u REMOTE_USER, --user=REMOTE_USER
                        connect as this user (default=None)
                        
  -c CONNECTION, --connection=CONNECTION
                        connection type to use (default=smart)
  --list-hosts          outputs a list of matching hosts; does not execute anything else
						列出主机列表,不做其他任何处理。
  -b, --become          run operations with become (does not imply password prompting)
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5. 定义主机列表:

示例1. 通过直接指定主机名或IP地址定义主机列表。

# Ex 1: Ungrouped hosts, specify before any group headers.

## green.example.com
## blue.example.com
## 192.168.100.1
## 192.168.100.10
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示例2. 先定义组名,再在组下填入主机名或IP地址

# Ex 2: A collection of hosts belonging to the 'webservers' group

## [webservers]
## alpha.example.org
## beta.example.org
## 192.168.1.100
## 192.168.1.110

# If you have multiple hosts following a pattern you can specify
# them like this:
# 如果有多个连续主机,也可用如下方法指定主机。

## www[001:006].example.com
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示例3.

# Ex 3: A collection of database servers in the 'dbservers' group

## [dbservers]
## 
## db01.intranet.mydomain.net
## db02.intranet.mydomain.net
## 10.25.1.56
## 10.25.1.57

# Here's another example of host ranges, this time there are no
# leading 0s:

## db-[99:101]-node.example.com
## 以上写法可扩展为如下主机:
## db-99-nod.example.com
## db-100-nod.example.com
## db-101-nod.example.com
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定义主机列表示例1:

[root@nfs ~]# tail -2 /etc/ansible/hosts
np[1:2].lxk.com
nfs.lxk.com
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获取主机列表:

[root@nfs ~]# ansible all --list-hosts
  hosts (3):
    np1.lxk.com
    np2.lxk.com
    nfs.lxk.com
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定义主机列表2:

[root@nfs ansible_workshop]# tail -8 /etc/ansible/hosts 
[db]
node1.lxk.com
node2.lxk.com
[web]
np1.lxk.com
np2.lxk.com
[nfs]
nfs.lxk.com
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获取主机列表:

[root@nfs ansible_workshop]# ansible all --list-hosts
  hosts (5):
    node1.lxk.com
    node2.lxk.com
    np1.lxk.com
    np2.lxk.com
    nfs.lxk.com
[root@nfs ansible_workshop]# ansible db --list-hosts
  hosts (2):
    node1.lxk.com
    node2.lxk.com
[root@nfs ansible_workshop]# ansible web --list-hosts
  hosts (2):
    np1.lxk.com
    np2.lxk.com

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6. ansible的常用模块:

获取模块帮助信息:

[root@nfs ~]# ansible-doc --help
Usage: ansible-doc [-l|-F|-s] [options] [plugin]

plugin documentation tool

Options:
  -a, --all             **For internal testing only** Show documentation for
                        all plugins.    #内测使用
  -h, --help            show this help message and exit
  -l, --list            List available plugins  显示可用插件
  -s, --snippet         Show playbook snippet for specified plugin(s)
                        ## 显示指定插件用法
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获取模块列表:

~]# ansible-doc  -l
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6.1 ping模块:探测远程主机

[root@nfs ~]# ansible-doc -s ping
- name: Try to connect to host, verify a usable python and return `pong' on success
# 尝试连接主机,若目标主机可用,就回应一个'pong'
  ping:
      data:           # Data to return for the `ping' return value. If this parameter is set to `crash', the module will cause an exception.
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**示例1:**向所有可控主机发起ping操作

[root@nfs ~]# ansible all -m ping
np2.lxk.com | SUCCESS => {
    "changed": false, 
    "ping": "pong"
}
nfs.lxk.com | SUCCESS => {
    "changed": false, 
    "ping": "pong"
}
np1.lxk.com | SUCCESS => {
    "changed": false, 
    "ping": "pong"
}
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**示例2:**data自定义回显内容为abc

[root@nfs ~]# ansible all -m ping -a data='abc' 
np1.lxk.com | SUCCESS => {
    "changed": false, 
    "ping": "abc"
}
np2.lxk.com | SUCCESS => {
    "changed": false, 
    "ping": "abc"
}
nfs.lxk.com | SUCCESS => {
    "changed": false, 
    "ping": "abc"
}
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**示例3:*data为crash时,显示结果为false

[root@nfs ~]# ansible all -m ping -a data='crash'
np1.lxk.com | FAILED! => {
    "changed": false, 
    "module_stderr": "Shared connection to np1.lxk.com closed.\r\n", 
    "module_stdout": "Traceback (most recent call last):\r\n  File \"/tmp/ansible_2DLaM3/ansible_module_ping.py\", line 84, in <module>\r\n    main()\r\n  File \"/tmp/ansible_2DLaM3/ansible_module_ping.py\", line 74, in main\r\n    raise Exception(\"boom\")\r\nException: boom\r\n", 
    "msg": "MODULE FAILURE", 
    "rc": 1
}
nfs.lxk.com | FAILED! => {
    "changed": false, 
    "module_stderr": "Shared connection to nfs.lxk.com closed.\r\n", 
    "module_stdout": "Traceback (most recent call last):\r\n  File \"/tmp/ansible_imV6B2/ansible_module_ping.py\", line 84, in <module>\r\n    main()\r\n  File \"/tmp/ansible_imV6B2/ansible_module_ping.py\", line 74, in main\r\n    raise Exception(\"boom\")\r\nException: boom\r\n", 
    "msg": "MODULE FAILURE", 
    "rc": 1
}
np2.lxk.com | FAILED! => {
    "changed": false, 
    "module_stderr": "Shared connection to np2.lxk.com closed.\r\n", 
    "module_stdout": "Traceback (most recent call last):\r\n  File \"/tmp/ansible_iocg2P/ansible_module_ping.py\", line 84, in <module>\r\n    main()\r\n  File \"/tmp/ansible_iocg2P/ansible_module_ping.py\", line 74, in main\r\n    raise Exception(\"boom\")\r\nException: boom\r\n", 
    "msg": "MODULE FAILURE", 
    "rc": 1
}
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6.2 command模块:在远程主机上运行命令

模块用法: 对于command来说,要使用哪个命令,使用-a选项,直接给出命令本身即可。

例1:创建临时文件

[root@nfs ~]# ansible all -m command -a "mktemp /tmp/abc.XXXX"
nfs.lxk.com | SUCCESS | rc=0 >>
/tmp/abc.Xyz7

np2.lxk.com | SUCCESS | rc=0 >>
/tmp/abc.lwqo

np1.lxk.com | SUCCESS | rc=0 >>
/tmp/abc.jjHW
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例2:创建用户

[root@nfs ~]# ansible all -m command -a "useradd user1"     # 第一次创建成功
nfs.lxk.com | SUCCESS | rc=0 >>


np1.lxk.com | SUCCESS | rc=0 >>



np2.lxk.com | SUCCESS | rc=0 >>



[root@nfs ~]# ansible all -m command -a "useradd user1"        #第二次创建相同用户失败
nfs.lxk.com | FAILED | rc=9 >>
useradd: user 'user1' already existsnon-zero return code

np1.lxk.com | FAILED | rc=9 >>
useradd: user 'user1' already existsnon-zero return code

np2.lxk.com | FAILED | rc=9 >>
useradd: user 'user1' already existsnon-zero return code
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用加条件判断创建用户失败,因||是直接发给目标主机内核运行,不是经由shell运行,而||是shell的内置命令。

[root@nfs ~]# ansible all -m command -a "id user1 || useradd user1"
nfs.lxk.com | FAILED | rc=1 >>
id: extra operand ‘||’
Try 'id --help' for more information.non-zero return code

np1.lxk.com | FAILED | rc=1 >>
id: extra operand ‘||’
Try 'id --help' for more information.non-zero return code

np2.lxk.com | FAILED | rc=1 >>
id: extra operand ‘||’
Try 'id --help' for more information.non-zero return code

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6.3 shell模块:在节点中执行命令

与command模块很相似,所不同处是它是在shell下运行的。还可使用executable切换至指定node下运行命令。 **例:**加条件判断创建用户

[root@nfs ~]# ansible all -m shell -a "id user1 || useradd user1"
np2.lxk.com | SUCCESS | rc=0 >>
uid=1001(user1) gid=1001(user1) groups=1001(user1)

nfs.lxk.com | SUCCESS | rc=0 >>
uid=1000(user1) gid=1000(user1) groups=1000(user1)

np1.lxk.com | SUCCESS | rc=0 >>
uid=1000(user1) gid=1000(user1) groups=1000(user1)

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6.4 group模块:添加或删除组

group模块用法:

[root@nfs ~]# ansible-doc -s group
- name: Add or remove groups
  group:
      gid:                   # Optional `GID' to set for the group.是否使用自定义的id号
      name:                  # (required) Name of the group to manage. 要管理的组名,必须要定义的。
      state:                 # Whether the group should be present or not on the remote host.  状态信息,决定是删除还是添加。创建:present,删除:absent
      system:                # If `yes', indicates that the group created is a system group.   是否创建系统用户
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**示例:**创建一个系统组

[root@nfs ~]# ansible np1.lxk.com -m group -a 'name=mygrp gid=200 system=yes'
np1.lxk.com | SUCCESS => {
    "changed": true,        #变更:成功
    "gid": 200,             #自定义组ID:200
    "name": "mygrp",        #组名:mygrp
    "state": "present",     #状态:添加
    "system": true          #是否为系统用户:是
}
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**示例:**删除组

[root@nfs ~]# ansible np1.lxk.com -m group -a 'name=mygrp state=absent'
np1.lxk.com | SUCCESS => {
    "changed": true, 
    "name": "mygrp", 
    "state": "absent"
}
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上面命令重复执行时,changed状态为false。

[root@nfs ~]# ansible np1.lxk.com -m group -a 'name=mygrp state=absent'
np1.lxk.com | SUCCESS => {
    "changed": false, 
    "name": "mygrp", 
    "state": "absent"
}
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6.5 user模块:管理用户帐户

模块内置命令一堆,请自行查看,基本见名知意。 **示例:**创建一个用户,名字为tom,用户ID为2000,组名为mygrp,shell类型为/bin/bash,状态为添加。

[root@nfs ~]# ansible np1.lxk.com -m user -a 'name=tom state=present uid=2000 groups=mygrp shell=/bin/bash'
np1.lxk.com | SUCCESS => {
    "changed": true, 
    "comment": "", 
    "create_home": true, 
    "group": 2000, 
    "groups": "mygrp", 
    "home": "/home/tom", 
    "name": "tom", 
    "shell": "/bin/bash", 
    "state": "present", 
    "system": false, 
    "uid": 2000
}
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**示例:**修改tom用户的ID为2020,shell类型为/bin/tcsh

[root@nfs ~]# ansible np1.lxk.com -m user -a 'name=tom state=present uid=2020 groups=mygrp shell=/bin/tcsh'
np1.lxk.com | SUCCESS => {
    "append": false, 
    "changed": true, 
    "comment": "", 
    "group": 2000, 
    "groups": "mygrp", 
    "home": "/home/tom", 
    "move_home": false, 
    "name": "tom", 
    "shell": "/bin/tcsh", 
    "state": "present", 
    "uid": 2020
}
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6.6 copy模块

[root@nfs ~]# ansible-doc -s copy
- name: Copies files to remote locations        #复制一个或多个文件至远程主机
  copy:
      dest:                  # (required) Remote absolute path where the file should be copied to. If `src' is a directory, this must be a directory too. If `dest' is a nonexistent path and if either `dest' ends with "/" or `src' is a directory, `dest' is created. If `src' and `dest' are files, the parent directory of `dest' isn't created: the task fails if it doesn't already exist.
      #复制指定文件至目标远程需要是绝对路径。如果src是目录,dest也必须是目录。如果dest是一个不存在的路径,并且dest不以/结尾或者src是个目录,dest会自动创建。如果src和dest都是多个文件,dest的父目录没创建,复制就会失败。
      src:                   # Local path to a file to copy to the remote server; can be absolute or relative. If path is a directory, it is copied recursively. In this case, if path ends with "/", only inside contents of that directory are copied to destination. Otherwise, if it does not end with "/", the directory itself with all contents is copied. This behavior is similar to Rsync.
      #本地需要复制到远程主机的文件的路径。可以是绝对路径,也可以是相对路径。如果路径是个目录,则递归复制。如果路径以/结尾,只复制目录下的文件至目标路径。如果不以/结尾,则会把目录以及其下的内容都复制至目标主机。这种行为类似于rsync。
      content:               # When used instead of `src', sets the contents of a file directly to the specified value. For anything advanced or with formatting also look at the template module.
      #如果不使用src而使用content,把文件内容直接指定为content所指定的内容。然后剩下的懒得翻译了。
      owner:                 # Name of the user that should own the file/directory, as would be fed to `chown'.
      mode:                  # Mode the file or directory should be. 
      group:                 # Name of the group that should own the file/directory, as would be fed to `chown'.
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**示例1:**通过content指定文件内容并复制至目标主机(若不带\n,不会自动换行)

[root@nfs ~]# ansible np2.lxk.com -m copy -a 'dest=/tmp/textfile.txt content="hello,brother!\n"'
np2.lxk.com | SUCCESS => {
    "changed": true, 
    "checksum": "8634ff795ad950aa9c762c45cc8b07137248002a", 
    "dest": "/tmp/textfile.txt", 
    "gid": 0, 
    "group": "root", 
    "md5sum": "2252b10979e37d2884855832666fd811", 
    "mode": "0644", 
    "owner": "root", 
    "size": 15, 
    "src": "~None/.ansible/tmp/ansible-tmp-1528471338.21-89043902941123/source",      #ansible会把给定的源生成一个临时源当做源文件复制至目标位置。
    "state": "file", 
    "uid": 0
}
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目标主机查看文件内容:

[root@np2 ~]# cat /tmp/textfile.txt 
hello,brother!
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**示例2:**复制本地/etc/fstab至np1.lxk.com的/tmp目录下,改名为fstab.txt,属主改为user2,权限0600.(user2需先创建)

[root@nfs ~]# np1.lxk.com all -m copy -a 'src=/etc/fstab dest=/tmp/fstab.txt owner=user2 mode=0600'
np1.lxk.com | SUCCESS => {
    "changed": true, 
    "checksum": "e634b64dbf499a1c2f14ade1dc9fc0d932b93093", 
    "dest": "/tmp/fstab.txt", 
    "gid": 0, 
    "group": "root", 
    "md5sum": "5aee64ae648da49b3b16e2b9ea70d279", 
    "mode": "0600", 
    "owner": "user2", 
    "size": 595, 
    "src": "~None/.ansible/tmp/ansible-tmp-1528518314.71-128514426299583/source", 
    "state": "file", 
    "uid": 1024
}
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查看目标主机上的文件:

[root@np1 ~]# ll /tmp
total 4
-rw------- 1 user2 root 595 Jun  9 12:25 fstab.txt
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6.7 fetch模块

[root@nfs ~]# ansible-doc -s fetch
- name: Fetches a file from remote nodes    #从远程主机取来文件
  fetch:
      dest:                  # (required) A directory to save the file into. For example, if the `dest' directory is `/backup' a `src' file named `/etc/profile' on host `host.example.com', would be saved into `/backup/host.example.com/etc/profile'
      #(必须项)要保存文件的目录。如指定的目录为/backup,远程主机host.example.com上的/etc/profile文件会保存在本地/backup/host.example.com/etc/profile
      src:                   # (required) The file on the remote system to fetch. This `must' be a file, not a directory. Recursive fetching may be supported in a later release.
      #远程主机需要fetch的文件,必须是文件,不能是目录。以后可能会支持目录。
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**示例1:**从远程主机np1.lxk.com上复制/etc/fstab至本地/tmp目录下

[root@nfs ~]# ansible np1.lxk.com -m fetch -a 'src=/etc/fstab dest=/tmp/'
np1.lxk.com | SUCCESS => {
    "changed": true, 
    "checksum": "e634b64dbf499a1c2f14ade1dc9fc0d932b93093", 
    "dest": "/tmp/np1.lxk.com/etc/fstab", 
    "md5sum": "5aee64ae648da49b3b16e2b9ea70d279", 
    "remote_checksum": "e634b64dbf499a1c2f14ade1dc9fc0d932b93093", 
    "remote_md5sum": null
}
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**示例2:**从所有可控的远程主机上复制/etc/fstab至本地/tmp目录下

[root@nfs ~]# ansible all -m fetch -a 'src=/etc/fstab dest=/tmp/'
np1.lxk.com | SUCCESS => {
    "changed": false, 
    "checksum": "e634b64dbf499a1c2f14ade1dc9fc0d932b93093", 
    "dest": "/tmp/np1.lxk.com/etc/fstab", 
    "file": "/etc/fstab", 
    "md5sum": "5aee64ae648da49b3b16e2b9ea70d279"
}
np2.lxk.com | SUCCESS => {
    "changed": true, 
    "checksum": "e634b64dbf499a1c2f14ade1dc9fc0d932b93093", 
    "dest": "/tmp/np2.lxk.com/etc/fstab", 
    "md5sum": "5aee64ae648da49b3b16e2b9ea70d279", 
    "remote_checksum": "e634b64dbf499a1c2f14ade1dc9fc0d932b93093", 
    "remote_md5sum": null
}
nfs.lxk.com | SUCCESS => {
    "changed": true, 
    "checksum": "e634b64dbf499a1c2f14ade1dc9fc0d932b93093", 
    "dest": "/tmp/nfs.lxk.com/etc/fstab", 
    "md5sum": "5aee64ae648da49b3b16e2b9ea70d279", 
    "remote_checksum": "e634b64dbf499a1c2f14ade1dc9fc0d932b93093", 
    "remote_md5sum": null
}
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查看本地目录:

[root@nfs ~]# tree /tmp
/tmp
├── issue.txt
├── nfs.lxk.com
│   └── etc
│       └── fstab
├── np1.lxk.com
│   └── etc
│       └── fstab
└── np2.lxk.com
    └── etc
        └── fstab

6 directories, 4 files
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6.8 file模块:修改文件的属性信息

[root@nfs ~]# ansible-doc -s file
- name: Sets attributes of files
  file:
      force:                 # force the creation of the symlinks in two cases: the source file does not exist (but will appear later); the destination exists and is a file (so, we need to unlink the "path" file and create symlink to the  "src" file in place of it).     #在两种情况下强制创建链接:源文件不存在(随后会出现)或目标存在且是文件(将会取消path指定的文件并创建链接)
      group:                 # Name of the group that should own the file/directory, as would be fed to `chown'.     #改变文件的属组
      mode:                  # Mode the file or directory should be. For those used to `/usr/bin/chmod' remember that modes are actually octal numbers (like `0644' or `01777').          #改变文件或目录的权限
      owner:                 # Name of the user that should own the file/directory, as would be fed to `chown'.     #改变文件的属主
      path:                  # (required) path to the file being managed.  Aliases: `dest', `name'      #必须项。要修改的文件的路径
      recurse:               # recursively set the specified file attributes (applies only to directories)   #递归地设置文件属性
      src:                   # path of the file to link to (applies only to `state=link' and `state=hard'). Will accept absolute, relative and nonexisting paths. Relative paths are not expanded.
      #要链接到的文件路径(只适用于“state=link”和“state=hard”)。将接受绝对路径、相对路径和不存在路径。相对路径没有展开。
      state:                 # If `directory', all intermediate subdirectories will be created if they do not exist. Since Ansible 1.7 they will be created with the supplied permissions. If `file', the file will NOT be created if it does not exist; see the `touch' value or the [copy] or [template] module if you want that behavior.  If `link', the symbolic link will be created or changed. Use `hard' for hardlinks. If `absent', directories will be recursively deleted, and files or symlinks will be unlinked. Note that `absent' will not cause `file' to fail if the `path' does not exist as the state did not change. If `touch' (new in 1.4), an empty file will be created if the `path' does not exist, while an existing file or directory will receive updated file access and modification times (similar to the way `touch` works from the command line).
      如果是目录,父目录不存在时会自动创建。
      如果是文件,文件不存在时不会创建。
      如果是链接,将会创建或者改变。
      如果是absent,目录将会被递归删除,文件或链接会被取消链接。
      如果是touch,不存在的文件将会被创建。目录将会更改访问时间和改变时间。
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**示例1:**修改np1.lxk.com主机/tmp/fstab.txt的属主为mygrp,权限为660

[root@nfs ~]# ansible np1.lxk.com -m file -a 'path=/tmp/fstab.txt group=mygrp mode=0660'
np1.lxk.com | SUCCESS => {
    "changed": true, 
    "gid": 200, 
    "group": "mygrp", 
    "mode": "0660", 
    "owner": "user2", 
    "path": "/tmp/fstab.txt", 
    "size": 595, 
    "state": "file", 
    "uid": 1024
}
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查看目标主机文件属性:

[root@np1 ~]# ll -d /tmp/fstab.txt 
-rw-rw---- 1 user2 mygrp 595 Jun  9 12:25 /tmp/fstab.txt
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**示例2:**为np1.lxk.com主机的/tmp/fstab.txt创建软链接/tmp/fstab.link

[root@nfs ~]# ansible np1.lxk.com -m file -a 'path=/tmp/fstab.link src=/tmp/fstab.txt  state=link'
np1.lxk.com | SUCCESS => {
    "changed": true, 
    "dest": "/tmp/fstab.link", 
    "gid": 0, 
    "group": "root", 
    "mode": "0777", 
    "owner": "root", 
    "size": 14, 
    "src": "/tmp/fstab.txt", 
    "state": "link", 
    "uid": 0
}
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**示例3:**在np1.lxk.com的/tmp目录下创建目录file.dir,权限为770

[root@nfs ~]# ansible np1.lxk.com -m file -a 'path=/tmp/file.dir mode=0770 state=directory'
np1.lxk.com | SUCCESS => {
    "changed": true, 
    "gid": 0, 
    "group": "root", 
    "mode": "0770", 
    "owner": "root", 
    "path": "/tmp/file.dir", 
    "size": 4096, 
    "state": "directory", 
    "uid": 0
}
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6.9 get_url模块:下载文件

**示例:**下载一个文件至np1.lxk.com的/tmp目录下

[root@nfs ~]# ansible np1.lxk.com -m get_url -a 'dest=/tmp/ url=https://mirrors.aliyun.com/centos/7.5.1804/paas/x86_64/openshift-origin36/jq-devel-1.5-1.el7.x86_64.rpm'
np1.lxk.com | SUCCESS => {
    "changed": true, 
    "checksum_dest": null, 
    "checksum_src": "c566cb3df854f4551da1ab7f642e96889b77439c", 
    "dest": "/tmp/jq-devel-1.5-1.el7.x86_64.rpm", 
    "gid": 0, 
    "group": "root", 
    "md5sum": "43f5092eadb4855fb780e67244d997df", 
    "mode": "0644", 
    "msg": "OK (6472 bytes)", 
    "owner": "root", 
    "size": 6472, 
    "src": "/tmp/tmpwix52V", 
    "state": "file", 
    "status_code": 200, 
    "uid": 0, 
    "url": "https://mirrors.aliyun.com/centos/7.5.1804/paas/x86_64/openshift-origin36/jq-devel-1.5-1.el7.x86_64.rpm"
}
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查看目标主机/tmp下的文件:

[root@np1 ~]# ls /tmp
file.dir  fstab.link  fstab.txt  jq-devel-1.5-1.el7.x86_64.rpm
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6.10 cron模块:创建周期性计划任务

**示例1:**创建一个时间同步的任务,每5分钟运行一次。

[root@nfs ~]# ansible np1.lxk.com -m cron -a "minute=*/5 job='/usr/sbin/ntpdate 192.168.200.254 &> /dev/null' name=timesync"
np1.lxk.com | SUCCESS => {
    "changed": true, 
    "envs": [], 
    "jobs": [
        "timesync"
    ]
}
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目标主机上查看任务:

[root@np1 ~]# crontab -l
#Ansible: timesync          #注明是由ansible生成的,标识名为timesync
*/5 * * * * /usr/sbin/ntpdate 192.168.200.254 &> /dev/null
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**示例2:**删除刚才创建的计划任务 ansible删除计划任务是根据name所定义的名字来标识的。

[root@nfs ~]# ansible np1.lxk.com -m cron -a "state=absent name=timesync"
np1.lxk.com | SUCCESS => {
    "changed": true, 
    "envs": [], 
    "jobs": []
}
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查看目标主机计划任务列表为空。

6.11 yum模块:用yum包管理器管理软件

[root@nfs ~]# ansible-doc -s yum
- name: Manages packages with the `yum' package manager
  yum:
      conf_file:             # The remote yum configuration file to use for the transaction.
      #指明当前事务使用哪个repo文件
      state:                 # Whether to install (`present' or `installed', `latest'), or remove (`absent' or `removed') a package.
      #安装选项:presetn、installed、latest
      #卸载选项:absent、removed
      name:                  # (required) A package name , or package specifier with version, like `name-1.0'. 
      #必须项。指定软件名
      skip_broken:           # Resolve depsolve problems by removing packages that are causing problems from the transaction.
      #跳过错误信息
      update_only:           # When using latest, only update installed packages. Do not install packages. Has an effect only if state is `latest'
      #只升级,如果软件包未安装则不安装。
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**示例1:**安装或者查看nginx软件是否已安装

[root@nfs ~]# ansible all -m yum -a "name=nginx state=installed"
nfs.lxk.com | SUCCESS => {
    "changed": false, 
    "msg": "", 
    "rc": 0, 
    "results": [
        "1:nginx-1.12.2-2.el7.x86_64 providing nginx is already installed"
    ]
}
np1.lxk.com | SUCCESS => {
    "changed": false, 
    "msg": "", 
    "rc": 0, 
    "results": [
        "1:nginx-1.12.2-2.el7.x86_64 providing nginx is already installed"
    ]
}
np2.lxk.com | SUCCESS => {
    "changed": false, 
    "msg": "", 
    "rc": 0, 
    "results": [
        "1:nginx-1.12.2-2.el7.x86_64 providing nginx is already installed"
    ]
}
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**示例2:**卸载nginx

[root@nfs ~]# ansible all -m yum -a "name=nginx state=absent"
nfs.lxk.com | SUCCESS => {
    "changed": true, 
    "msg": "", 
    "rc": 0, 
…………
太长,不贴了。在命令返回中可以看到Erasing字样,
…………
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**示例3:**使用np1.lxk.com主机的/etc/yum.repos.d/repobak/base.repo安装httpd软件

[root@nfs ~]# ansible np1.lxk.com -m yum -a "name=httpd state=installed conf_file=/etc/yum.repos.d/repobak/base.repo"
np1.lxk.com | SUCCESS => {
    "changed": true, 
    "msg": "", 
    "rc": 0, 
    "results": [
        "Resolving Dependencies\n--> Running transaction check\n---> Package httpd.x86_64 0:2.4.6-80.el7.centos will be installed\n--> Finished Dependency Resolution\n\nDependencies Resolved\n\n================================================================================\n Package       Arch           Version                        Repository    Size\n================================================================================\nInstalling:\n httpd         x86_64         2.4.6-80.el7.centos            base         2.7 M\n\nTransaction Summary\n================================================================================\nInstall  1 Package\n\nTotal download size: 2.7 M\nInstalled size: 9.4 M\nDownloading packages:\nRunning transaction check\nRunning transaction test\nTransaction test succeeded\nRunning transaction\n  Installing : httpd-2.4.6-80.el7.centos.x86_64                             1/1 \n  Verifying  : httpd-2.4.6-80.el7.centos.x86_64                             1/1 \n\nInstalled:\n  httpd.x86_64 0:2.4.6-80.el7.centos                                            \n\nComplete!\n"
    ]
}

实际显示效果就是这样。有点丑。但是安装成功了。
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**示例4:**更新缓存并安装httpd

[root@nfs ~]# ansible np2.lxk.com -m yum -a "name=httpd state=installed update_cache=yes"
np2.lxk.com | SUCCESS => {
    "changed": false, 
    "msg": "", 
    "rc": 0, 
    "results": [
        "httpd-2.4.6-80.el7.centos.x86_64 providing httpd is already installed"
    ]
}
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6.12 hostname模块:管理主机名,通常一次只能设置一个。

[root@nfs ~]# ansible-doc -s hostname
- name: Manage hostname
  hostname:
      name:                  # (required) Name of the host
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示例:

[root@nfs ~]# ansible np1.lxk.com -m hostname -a "name=np1"
np1.lxk.com | SUCCESS => {
    "ansible_facts": {
        "ansible_domain": "lxk.com", 
        "ansible_fqdn": "np1.lxk.com", 
        "ansible_hostname": "np1", 
        "ansible_nodename": "np1"
    }, 
    "changed": true, 
    "name": "np1"
}
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6.12 git模块

[root@nfs ~]# ansible-doc -s git
- name: Deploy software (or files) from git checkouts
  git:
      clone:                 # If `no', do not clone the repository if it does not exist locally
      dest:                  # (required) The path of where the repository should be checked out. This parameter is required, unless `clone' is set to `no'.
      repo:                  # (required) git, SSH, or HTTP(S) protocol address of the git repository
      version:               # What version of the repository to check out. 
                             #指定要clone的版本,如果不指,默认为最新版本。
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示例: 下载kubernetes至/tmp/kubernetes/

[root@nfs ~]# ansible np1.lxk.com -m git -a 'repo="https://github.com/kubernetes/kubernetes.git" dest=/tmp/kubernetes'
#下载需要等待
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查看目标主机下载情况:

[root@np1 ~]# tree -a /tmp/kubernetes
/tmp/kubernetes
└── .git
    ├── branches
    ├── config
    ├── description
    ├── HEAD
    ├── hooks
    │   ├── applypatch-msg.sample
    │   ├── commit-msg.sample
    │   ├── post-update.sample
    │   ├── pre-applypatch.sample
    │   ├── pre-commit.sample
    │   ├── prepare-commit-msg.sample
    │   ├── pre-push.sample
    │   ├── pre-rebase.sample
    │   └── update.sample
    ├── info
    │   └── exclude
    ├── objects
    │   ├── info
    │   └── pack
    └── refs
        ├── heads
        └── tags

10 directories, 13 files
[root@np1 ~]# du -sh /tmp/kubernetes
100K	/tmp/kubernetes
#可看到目录已创建,因下载速度慢,文件还是这么小。
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6.13 pip模块:Manages Python library dependencies

[root@nfs ~]# ansible-doc -s pip
- name: Manages Python library dependencies
  pip:
      name:                  # The name of a Python library to install or the url of the remote package. As of 2.2 you can supply a list of names.
      #指定名称,也可以以URL指定。2.2版本后支持名称列表。
      state:                 # The state of module The 'forcereinstall' option is only available in Ansible 2.1 and above.
      #同yum的state
      version:               # The version number to install of the Python library specified in the `name' parameter.
      #指定要安装的版本
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6.14 npm模块:Manage node.js packages with npm

[root@nfs ~]# ansible-doc -s npm
- name: Manage node.js packages with npm
  npm:
      name:                  # The name of a node.js library to install
                             #要安装的node.js名称
      path:                  # The base path where to install the node.js libraries
                             #指明安装源地址
      state:                 # The state of the node.js library
      version:               # The version to be installed
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6.15 service模块:管理服务

[root@nfs ~]# ansible-doc -s service
- name: Manage services
  service:
      arguments:             # Additional arguments provided on the command line
      enabled:               # Whether the service should start on boot. *At least one of state and enabled are required.*
                             #设置服务是否开机自启
      name:                  # (required) Name of the service.
                             #必须项。服务的名称
      pattern:               # If the service does not respond to the status command, name a substring to look for as  would be found in the output of the `ps' command as a stand- in for a status result.  If the string is found, the service will be assumed to be running.
      runlevel:              # For OpenRC init scripts (ex: Gentoo) only.  The runlevel that this service belongs to.
                             #运行级别
      sleep:                 # If the service is being `restarted' then sleep this many seconds between the stop and start command. This helps to workaround badly behaving init scripts that exit immediately after signaling a process to stop.
                             #如果服务是重启,这个选项设置服务关闭后睡眠多长时间再重新开启服务。
      state:                 # `started'/`stopped' are idempotent actions that will not run commands unless necessary. `restarted' will always bounce the service.  `reloaded' will always reload. *At least one of state and enabled are required.* Note that reloaded will start the service if it is not already started, even if your chosen init system wouldn't normally.
                             #started:开启服务
                             #stoped:关闭服务
                             #restarted:重启服务
                             #reloaded:重载服务
                             #reloaded时,如果服务未启动会启动它。
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**示例:**启动httpd服务,并设置开机自启

[root@nfs ~]# ansible all -m service -a "name=httpd state=started enabled=yes"
nfs.lxk.com | SUCCESS => {
    "changed": true, 
    "enabled": true, 
    "name": "httpd", 
    "state": "started", 
    "status": {
        "ActiveEnterTimestampMonotonic": "0", 
        "ActiveExitTimestampMonotonic": "0", 
        "ActiveState": "inactive", 
        "After": "remote-fs.target basic.target network.target nss-lookup.target tmp.mount system.slice -.mount systemd-journald.socket", 
        "AllowIsolate": "no", 
        "AmbientCapabilities": "0", 
…………
太长,不复制了
…………
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查看所有节点服务状态:

[root@nfs ~]# ansible all -m shell -a "ss -tnlp | grep 80"
np1.lxk.com | SUCCESS | rc=0 >>
LISTEN     0      128    127.0.0.1:6379                     *:*                   users:(("redis-server",pid=8077,fd=4))
LISTEN     0      128         :::80                      :::*                   users:(("httpd",pid=14265,fd=4),("httpd",pid=14264,fd=4),("httpd",pid=14263,fd=4),("httpd",pid=14262,fd=4),("httpd",pid=14261,fd=4),("httpd",pid=14260,fd=4))

np2.lxk.com | SUCCESS | rc=0 >>
LISTEN     0      128         :::80                      :::*                   users:(("httpd",pid=14845,fd=4),("httpd",pid=14844,fd=4),("httpd",pid=14842,fd=4),("httpd",pid=14841,fd=4),("httpd",pid=14840,fd=4),("httpd",pid=14838,fd=4))

nfs.lxk.com | SUCCESS | rc=0 >>
LISTEN     0      128         :::80                      :::*                   users:(("httpd",pid=6953,fd=4),("httpd",pid=6952,fd=4),("httpd",pid=6951,fd=4),("httpd",pid=6950,fd=4),("httpd",pid=6949,fd=4),("httpd",pid=6948,fd=4))

[root@nfs ~]# ansible all -m shell -a "systemctl is-enabled httpd"
np2.lxk.com | SUCCESS | rc=0 >>
enabled

np1.lxk.com | SUCCESS | rc=0 >>
enabled

nfs.lxk.com | SUCCESS | rc=0 >>
enabled
#所有节点httpd服务都是开机自启
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6.16 setup模块:获得目标主机的facts

用法:

[root@nfs ansible_workshop]# ansible np1.lxk.com -m setup 
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使用setup模块获取到的所有主机的facts都可在yaml文件中当作variables直接调用,若fatcs是嵌套的,可以用点号隔开引用。

6.17 template模板:

类似于copy模块

[root@nfs ansible_workshop]# ansible-doc -s template
- name: Templates a file out to a remote server
  template:
      src:                   # (required) Path of a Jinja2 formatted template on the Ansible controller. This can be a relative or absolute path.
                             # 必须项,源为Jinja2格式的模板
      dest:                  # (required) Location to render the template to on the remote machine.       # 必须项,远程主机上存放模板的位置
      group:                 # Name of the group that should own the file/directory, as would be fed to `chown'.
                             # 应该拥有文件/目录的组的名称,此处指定的名称将被发送到“chown”。
      owner:                 # Name of the user that should own the file/directory, as would be fed to `chown'.
                             #应该拥有该文件/目录的用户的名称,此处指定的名称将被发送到“chown”。
      mode:                  # Mode the file or directory should be. For those used to `/usr/bin/chmod' remember that modes are actually octal numbers (like `0644' or `01777').          # 文件或目录的权限。格式为`0644' 或 `01777'
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