U2Net基于ModelArts Notbook的仿真实验

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​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​摘要:U2Net 是一个优秀的显著性目标检测算法,由 Qin Xuebin 等人发表在 Pattern Recognition 2020 期刊[Arxiv]。U2Net 名称的来源在于其网络结构由两层嵌套的 Unet 结构,可以在不需要预训练骨干网络的情况下从零开始训练,拥有优异的表现。

本文分享自华为云社区《ModelArtsNotebook快速开源项目实战 — U2Net》,作者:shpity 。

一、U2Net 介绍

U2Net 是一个优秀的显著性目标检测算法,由 Qin Xuebin 等人发表在 Pattern Recognition 2020 期刊[Arxiv]。U2Net 名称的来源在于其网络结构由两层嵌套的 Unet 结构,可以在不需要预训练骨干网络的情况下从零开始训练,拥有优异的表现。其网络结构如图 1 所示。

图 1. U2Net 的主体框架是一个类似于 U-Net 的编解码结构,但是每一个 block 替换为新提出的残差 U-block 模块

项目开源地址:
github.com/xuebinqin/U…

二、创建 Notebook 开发环境

1. 进入ModelArts控制台

2. 选择开发环境 -> Notebook -> 创建

3. 创建 Notebook

3.1 可以选择和任务相关的名称,方便管理;

3.2 为了减少不必要的资源消耗,建议开启自动停止;

3.3 U2Net 所需的运行环境在公共镜像中已经包含,可以选择
pytorch1.4-cuda10.1-cudnn7-ubuntu18.04;

3.4 建议选择 GPU 类型,方便模型快速训练;

3.5 选择立即创建 -> 提交,等待 notebook 创建完成后打开 Notebook。

4. 导入开源项目源码(git/手动上传)

4.1 在 Terminal 使用 git 克隆远程仓库

cd work # 注意:只有/home/ma-user/work目录及其子目录下的文件在Notebook实例关闭后会保存
git clone https://github.com/xuebinqin/U-2-Net.git
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4.2 如果 git 速度较慢也可以从本地上传代码,直接将压缩包拖到左侧文件目录栏或者采用 OBS 上传。

三、 数据准备

1. 下载训练数据 APDrawing dataset

使用 Wget 直接下载到 Notebook,也可下载本地后再拖拽到 Notebook 中。

wget https://cg.cs.tsinghua.edu.cn/people/~Yongjin/APDrawingDB.zip
unzip APDrawingDB.zip
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注:如果数据集较大(>5GB)需要下载到其它目录(实例停止后会被删除),建议存放在 OBS 中,需要的时候随时拉取。

#从OBS中拉取代码到指定目录
sh-4.4$ source /home/ma-user/anaconda3/bin/activate PyTorch-1.4
sh-4.4$ python
>>> mox.file.copy_parallel('obs://bucket-xxxx/APDrawingDB', '/home/ma-user/work/APDrawingDB')
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2. 切分训练数据

数据集中./APDrawingDB/data/train 中包含了 420 张训练图片,分辨率为 512*1024,左侧为输入图像,右侧为对应的 ground truth。我们需要将大图从中间切分为两个子图。

2.1 在 Notebook 开发环境中新建一个 Pytorch-1.4 的 jupyterNotebook 文件,名称可以为 split.ipynb,脚本将会在./APDrawingDB/data/train/split 目录下生成 840 张子图,其中原始图像以.jpg 结尾,gt 图像以.png 结尾,方便后续训练代码读取【test 文件夹切分步骤同理】。

from PIL import Image
import os
train_img_dir = os.path.join("./APDrawingDB/data/train")
img_list = os.listdir(train_img_dir)
for image in img_list:
    img_path = os.path.join(train_img_dir, image)
    if not os.path.isdir(img_path):
        img = Image.open(img_path)
        #print(img.size)
        save_img_dir = os.path.join(train_img_dir, 'split_train')
        if not os.path.exists(save_img_dir):
            os.mkdir(save_img_dir)
        save_img_path = os.path.join(save_img_dir, image)
        cropped_left = img.crop((0, 0, 512, 512))  # (left, upper, right, lower)
        cropped_right = img.crop((512, 0, 1024, 512))  # (left, upper, right, lower)
        cropped_left.save(save_img_path[:-3] + 'jpg')
        cropped_right.save(save_img_path)


test_img_dir = os.path.join("./APDrawingDB/data/test")
img_list = os.listdir(test_img_dir)
for image in img_list:
    img_path = os.path.join(test_img_dir, image)
    if not os.path.isdir(img_path):
        img = Image.open(img_path)
        #print(img.size)
        save_img_dir = os.path.join(test_img_dir, 'split')
        if not os.path.exists(save_img_dir):
            os.mkdir(save_img_dir)
        save_img_path = os.path.join(save_img_dir, image)
        cropped_left = img.crop((0, 0, 512, 512))  # (left, upper, right, lower)
        cropped_right = img.crop((512, 0, 1024, 512))  # (left, upper, right, lower)
        cropped_left.save(save_img_path[:-3] + 'jpg')
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3. 将切分好的数据按照如下层级结构整理出训练和测试所需的 datasets 文件夹

datasets/

├── test (70 张切分图片,只包含原图)

└── train (840 张切分图片,包含 420 张原图及对应的 gt)

注:可以将切分好的数据集保存到 OBS 目录中,减少./work 的磁盘空间占用。

4. 完整的 U-2-Net 项目结构如下所示:

U-2-Net/

├── .git

├── LICENSE

├── README.md

├── pycache

├── clipping_camera.jpg

├── data_loader.py

├── datasets

├── figures

├── gradio

├── model

├── requirements.txt

├── saved_models

├── setup_model_weights.py

├── test_data

├── u2net_human_seg_test.py

├── u2net_portrait_demo.py

├── u2net_portrait_test.py

├── u2net_test.py

└── u2net_train.py

四、训练

1. 官方提供的训练代码中数据的路径和我们的 datasets 有些区别,需要对训练脚本进行一些修改,建议使用 jupyter notebook 方便排除错误

新建一个 Pytorch-1.4 的 jupyterNotebook 文件,名称可以为 train.ipynb

import moxing as mox
# 如果需要从OBS拷贝切分好的训练数据
#mox.file.copy_parallel('obs://bucket-test-xxxx', '/home/ma-user/work/U-2-Net/datasets')

INFO:root:Using MoXing-v1.17.3-43fbf97f
INFO:root:Using OBS-Python-SDK-3.20.7

import os
import torch
import torchvision
from torch.autograd import Variable
import torch.nn as nn
import torch.nn.functional as F


from torch.utils.data import Dataset, DataLoader
from torchvision import transforms, utils
import torch.optim as optim
import torchvision.transforms as standard_transforms


import numpy as np
import glob
import os


from data_loader import Rescale
from data_loader import RescaleT
from data_loader import RandomCrop
from data_loader import ToTensor
from data_loader import ToTensorLab
from data_loader import SalObjDataset


from model import U2NET
from model import U2NETP

/home/ma-user/anaconda3/envs/PyTorch-1.4/lib/python3.7/site-packages/skimage/io/manage_plugins.py:23: UserWarning: Your installed pillow version is < 7.1.0. Several security issues (CVE-2020-11538, CVE-2020-10379, CVE-2020-10994, CVE-2020-10177) have been fixed in pillow 7.1.0 or higher. We recommend to upgrade this library.
from .collection import imread_collection_wrapper

bce_loss = nn.BCELoss(size_average=True)

/home/ma-user/anaconda3/envs/PyTorch-1.4/lib/python3.7/site-packages/torch/nn/_reduction.py:43: UserWarning: size_average and reduce args will be deprecated, please use reduction='mean' instead.
warnings.warn(warning.format(ret))

def muti_bce_loss_fusion(d0, d1, d2, d3, d4, d5, d6, labels_v):


	loss0 = bce_loss(d0,labels_v)
	loss1 = bce_loss(d1,labels_v)
	loss2 = bce_loss(d2,labels_v)
	loss3 = bce_loss(d3,labels_v)
	loss4 = bce_loss(d4,labels_v)
	loss5 = bce_loss(d5,labels_v)
	loss6 = bce_loss(d6,labels_v)


	loss = loss0 + loss1 + loss2 + loss3 + loss4 + loss5 + loss6
	print("l0: %3f, l1: %3f, l2: %3f, l3: %3f, l4: %3f, l5: %3f, l6: %3f\n"%(loss0.data.item(),loss1.data.item(),loss2.data.item(),loss3.data.item(),loss4.data.item(),loss5.data.item(),loss6.data.item()))


	return loss0, loss

model_name = 'u2net' #'u2netp'


data_dir = os.path.join(os.getcwd(), 'datasets', 'train' + os.sep)
# tra_image_dir = os.path.join('DUTS', 'DUTS-TR', 'DUTS-TR', 'im_aug' + os.sep)
# tra_label_dir = os.path.join('DUTS', 'DUTS-TR', 'DUTS-TR', 'gt_aug' + os.sep)


image_ext = '.jpg'
label_ext = '.png'


model_dir = os.path.join(os.getcwd(), 'saved_models', model_name + os.sep)


epoch_num = 100000
batch_size_train = 24
batch_size_val = 1
train_num = 0
val_num = 0

tra_img_name_list = glob.glob(data_dir  + '*' + image_ext)


tra_lbl_name_list = []
for img_path in tra_img_name_list:
	img_name = img_path.split(os.sep)[-1]


	aaa = img_name.split(".")
	bbb = aaa[0:-1]
	imidx = bbb[0]
	for i in range(1,len(bbb)):
		imidx = imidx + "." + bbb[i]


	tra_lbl_name_list.append(data_dir  + imidx + label_ext)


print("---")
print("train images: ", len(tra_img_name_list))
print("train labels: ", len(tra_lbl_name_list))
print("---")


train_num = len(tra_img_name_list)

---
train images:  420
train labels:  420
---

salobj_dataset = SalObjDataset(
    img_name_list=tra_img_name_list,
    lbl_name_list=tra_lbl_name_list,
    transform=transforms.Compose([
        RescaleT(320),
        RandomCrop(288),
        ToTensorLab(flag=0)]))
salobj_dataloader = DataLoader(salobj_dataset, batch_size=batch_size_train, shuffle=True, num_workers=1)

# ------- 3. define model --------
# define the net
if(model_name=='u2net'):
    net = U2NET(3, 1)
elif(model_name=='u2netp'):
    net = U2NETP(3,1)


if torch.cuda.is_available():
    net.cuda()


# ------- 4. define optimizer --------
print("---define optimizer...")
optimizer = optim.Adam(net.parameters(), lr=0.001, betas=(0.9, 0.999), eps=1e-08, weight_decay=0)

---define optimizer...

# ------- 5. training process --------
print("---start training...")
ite_num = 0
running_loss = 0.0
running_tar_loss = 0.0
ite_num4val = 0
save_frq = 2000 # save the model every 2000 iterations

---start training...

for epoch in range(0, epoch_num):
    net.train()


    for i, data in enumerate(salobj_dataloader):
        ite_num = ite_num + 1
        ite_num4val = ite_num4val + 1


        inputs, labels = data['image'], data['label']


        inputs = inputs.type(torch.FloatTensor)
        labels = labels.type(torch.FloatTensor)


        # wrap them in Variable
        if torch.cuda.is_available():
            inputs_v, labels_v = Variable(inputs.cuda(), requires_grad=False), Variable(labels.cuda(),
                                                                                        requires_grad=False)
        else:
            inputs_v, labels_v = Variable(inputs, requires_grad=False), Variable(labels, requires_grad=False)


        # y zero the parameter gradients
        optimizer.zero_grad()


        # forward + backward + optimize
        d0, d1, d2, d3, d4, d5, d6 = net(inputs_v)
        loss2, loss = muti_bce_loss_fusion(d0, d1, d2, d3, d4, d5, d6, labels_v)


        loss.backward()
        optimizer.step()


        # # print statistics
        running_loss += loss.data.item()
        running_tar_loss += loss2.data.item()


        # del temporary outputs and loss
        del d0, d1, d2, d3, d4, d5, d6, loss2, loss
        print("[epoch: %3d/%3d, batch: %5d/%5d, ite: %d] train loss: %3f, tar: %3f " % (
        epoch + 1, epoch_num, (i + 1) * batch_size_train, train_num, ite_num, running_loss / ite_num4val, running_tar_loss / ite_num4val))


        if ite_num % save_frq == 0:
            model_weight = model_dir + model_name+"_bce_itr_%d_train_%3f_tar_%3f.pth" % (ite_num, running_loss / ite_num4val, running_tar_loss / ite_num4val)
            torch.save(net.state_dict(),  model_weight)
            mox.file.copy_parallel(model_weight, 'obs://bucket-xxxx/output/model_save/' + model_weight.split('/')[-1])
            running_loss = 0.0
            running_tar_loss = 0.0
            net.train()  # resume train
            ite_num4val = 0

l0: 0.167562, l1: 0.153742, l2: 0.156246, l3: 0.163096, l4: 0.176632, l5: 0.197176, l6: 0.247590


[epoch:   1/100000, batch:    24/  420, ite: 500] train loss: 1.189413, tar: 0.159183 
l0: 0.188048, l1: 0.179041, l2: 0.180086, l3: 0.187904, l4: 0.198345, l5: 0.218509, l6: 0.269199


[epoch:   1/100000, batch:    48/  420, ite: 501] train loss: 1.266652, tar: 0.168805 
l0: 0.192491, l1: 0.187615, l2: 0.188043, l3: 0.197142, l4: 0.203571, l5: 0.222019, l6: 0.261745


[epoch:   1/100000, batch:    72/  420, ite: 502] train loss: 1.313146, tar: 0.174727 
l0: 0.169403, l1: 0.155883, l2: 0.157974, l3: 0.164012, l4: 0.175975, l5: 0.195938, l6: 0.244896


[epoch:   1/100000, batch:    96/  420, ite: 503] train loss: 1.303333, tar: 0.173662 
l0: 0.171904, l1: 0.157170, l2: 0.156688, l3: 0.162020, l4: 0.175565, l5: 0.200576, l6: 0.258133


[epoch:   1/100000, batch:   120/  420, ite: 504] train loss: 1.299787, tar: 0.173369 
l0: 0.177398, l1: 0.166131, l2: 0.169089, l3: 0.176976, l4: 0.187039, l5: 0.205449, l6: 0.248036
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五、测试

新建一个 Pytorch-1.4 的 jupyterNotebook 文件,名称可以为 test.ipynb

import moxing as mox
# 拷贝数据
mox.file.copy_parallel('obs://bucket-xxxx/output/model_save/u2net.pth', '/home/ma-user/work/U-2-Net/saved_models/u2net/u2net.pth')

import os
import sys
from skimage import io, transform
import torch
import torchvision
from torch.autograd import Variable
import torch.nn as nn
import torch.nn.functional as F
from torch.utils.data import Dataset, DataLoader
from torchvision import transforms#, utils
# import torch.optim as optim


import numpy as np
from PIL import Image
import glob


from data_loader import RescaleT
from data_loader import ToTensor
from data_loader import ToTensorLab
from data_loader import SalObjDataset


from model import U2NET # full size version 173.6 MB
from model import U2NETP # small version u2net 4.7 MB
%matplotlib inline
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
from matplotlib.pyplot import imshow

# normalize the predicted SOD probability map
def normPRED(d):
    ma = torch.max(d)
    mi = torch.min(d)


    dn = (d-mi)/(ma-mi)


    return dn


def save_output(image_name,pred,d_dir, show=False):


    predict = pred
    predict = predict.squeeze()
    predict_np = predict.cpu().data.numpy()


    im = Image.fromarray(predict_np*255).convert('RGB')
    img_name = image_name.split(os.sep)[-1]
    image = io.imread(image_name)
    imo = im.resize((image.shape[1],image.shape[0]),resample=Image.BILINEAR)


    pb_np = np.array(imo)
    if show:
        show_on_notebook(image, im)
    aaa = img_name.split(".")
    bbb = aaa[0:-1]
    imidx = bbb[0]
    for i in range(1,len(bbb)):
        imidx = imidx + "." + bbb[i]


    imo.save(d_dir+imidx+'.png')
    return im
    
def show_on_notebook(image_original, pred): #此函数可以在notebook中展示模型的预测效果
    plt.subplot(1,2,1)
    imshow(np.array(image_original))
    plt.subplot(1,2,2)
    imshow(np.array(pred))

# --------- 1. get image path and name ---------
model_name='u2net'#u2netp


image_dir = os.path.join(os.getcwd(), 'datasets', 'test') #注意这里的test_data/original存放的是datasets/test中的原始图片,不包含gt
prediction_dir = os.path.join(os.getcwd(), 'output', model_name + '_results' + os.sep)
model_dir = os.path.join(os.getcwd(), 'saved_models', model_name, model_name + '.pth')
img_name_list = glob.glob(os.path.join(os.getcwd(), 'datasets/test/*.jpg'))
# print(img_name_list)


# --------- 2. dataloader ---------
#1. dataloader
test_salobj_dataset = SalObjDataset(img_name_list = img_name_list,
                                    lbl_name_list = [],
                                    transform=transforms.Compose([RescaleT(320),
                                                                  ToTensorLab(flag=0)])
                                    )
test_salobj_dataloader = DataLoader(test_salobj_dataset,
                                    batch_size=1,
                                    shuffle=False,
                                    num_workers=1)


# --------- 3. model define ---------
if(model_name=='u2net'):
    print("...load U2NET---173.6 MB")
    net = U2NET(3,1)
elif(model_name=='u2netp'):
    print("...load U2NEP---4.7 MB")
    net = U2NETP(3,1)


if torch.cuda.is_available():
    net.load_state_dict(torch.load(model_dir))
    net.cuda()
else:
    net.load_state_dict(torch.load(model_dir, map_location='cpu'))
net.eval()

# --------- 4. inference for each image ---------
for i_test, data_test in enumerate(test_salobj_dataloader):


#     print("inferencing:",img_name_list[i_test].split(os.sep)[-1])


    inputs_test = data_test['image']
    
    inputs_test = inputs_test.type(torch.FloatTensor)


    if torch.cuda.is_available():
        inputs_test = Variable(inputs_test.cuda())
    else:
        inputs_test = Variable(inputs_test)


    d1,d2,d3,d4,d5,d6,d7= net(inputs_test)


    # normalization
    pred = d1[:,0,:,:]
    pred = normPRED(pred)


    # save results to test_results folder
    if not os.path.exists(prediction_dir):
        os.makedirs(prediction_dir, exist_ok=True)
    save_output(img_name_list[i_test],pred,prediction_dir, show=True)
#     sys.exit(0)


    del d1,d2,d3,d4,d5,d6,d7
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六、附件

附件:附件.zip

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