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Maven环境配置-必会

一、简介

maven是什么?

小白看过来,大神请绕道…

有问题可以留言。或者联系QQ:8042965

二、在Windows下配置Maven环境

Maven 3.3+需要JDK 1.7或更高版本才能执行

想要安装Maven需要下载maven压缩包,无需安装,在windows下只需要配置windows环境变量。

言归正传

开始!

本次教程我所使用的各个版本号(希望能和我一样):

​ 1、JDK 1.8

​ 2、Maven3.5.3 (自己下载最新版一般都没有问题)

​ 3、win10 64位操作系统

JDK环境,Maven环境省略。这里假设你已经会了。

我使用的版本号:

C:\Users\zhenghui>java -version
java version "1.8.0_172-ea"
Java(TM) SE Runtime Environment (build 1.8.0_172-ea-b03)
Java HotSpot(TM) 64-Bit Server VM (build 25.172-b03, mixed mode)

C:\Users\zhenghui>
C:\Users\zhenghui>
C:\Users\zhenghui>mvn -version
Apache Maven 3.5.3 (3383c37e1f9e9b3bc3df5050c29c8aff9f295297; 2018-02-25T03:49:05+08:00)
Maven home: E:\soft\apache-maven-3.5.3\apache-maven-3.5.3\bin\..
Java version: 1.8.0_172-ea, vendor: Oracle Corporation
Java home: C:\Program Files\Java\jdk1.8.0_172\jre
Default locale: zh_CN, platform encoding: GBK
OS name: "windows 10", version: "10.0", arch: "amd64", family: "windows"

C:\Users\zhenghui>
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三、下载Maven

Maven的官网:

maven.apache.org/

强烈推荐一定要到官网下载,又不花钱对吧,英语不好不要紧,有道随时都在呢

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把下载好的压缩文件解压出来
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最好放到你自己的安装目录下

E:\soft\apache-maven-3.5.3\apache-maven-3.5.3

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四、配置Maven环境变量

右键 “计算机”,选择 “属性”,之后点击 “高级系统设置”,点击"环境变量",来设置环境变量,有以下系统变量需要配置:

1、新建系统变量 MAVEN_HOME,变量值:E:\soft\apache-maven-3.5.3\apache-maven-3.5.3
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2、编辑系统变量 Path,添加变量值: %MAVEN_HOME%\bin
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测试是否成功

Microsoft Windows [版本 10.0.17134.648]
(c) 2018 Microsoft Corporation。保留所有权利。

C:\Users\zhenghui>mvn -v
Apache Maven 3.5.3 (3383c37e1f9e9b3bc3df5050c29c8aff9f295297; 2018-02-25T03:49:05+08:00)
Maven home: E:\soft\apache-maven-3.5.3\apache-maven-3.5.3\bin\..
Java version: 1.8.0_172-ea, vendor: Oracle Corporation
Java home: C:\Program Files\Java\jdk1.8.0_172\jre
Default locale: zh_CN, platform encoding: GBK
OS name: "windows 10", version: "10.0", arch: "amd64", family: "windows"

C:\Users\zhenghui>
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五、其他注意事项

1、Maven仓库

在 Maven 的术语中,仓库是一个位置(place)。

Maven 仓库是项目中依赖的第三方库,这个库所在的位置叫做仓库。

在 Maven 中,任何一个依赖、插件或者项目构建的输出,都可以称之为构件。

Maven 仓库能帮助我们管理构件(主要是JAR),它就是放置所有JAR文件(WAR,ZIP,POM等等)的地方。

Maven 仓库有三种类型:

  • 本地(local)
  • 中央(central)
  • 远程(remote)

详细介绍请点击:www.runoob.com/maven/maven…

1、修改Maven的本地仓库

为什么修改:

因为本地仓库默认在C盘,所以不建议默认在C盘,以后C盘会越来越大的。

1)、打开settings.xml文件

2)、修改为下图所示的:
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2、修改Maven的中央仓库

我使用的是阿里云的:

在上面打开的文件里找到mirrors添加上就行

<mirrors>
    <mirror>
      <id>alimaven</id>
      <name>aliyun maven</name>
      <url>http://maven.aliyun.com/nexus/content/groups/public/</url>
      <mirrorOf>central</mirrorOf>        
    </mirror>
</mirrors>
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六、settings.xml文件全部

过滤掉注释的:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>

<settings xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/SETTINGS/1.0.0"
          xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
          xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/SETTINGS/1.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/xsd/settings-1.0.0.xsd">

<localRepository>E:\soft\apache-maven-3.5.3\local</localRepository>

  <pluginGroups>
   
  </pluginGroups>

  <proxies>
  
  </proxies>

  <servers>
   
  </servers>

  <mirrors>
  
    <mirror>  
      <id>aliyun</id>  
      <name>aliyun</name>  
      <url>http://maven.aliyun.com/nexus/content/groups/public/</url>
      <mirrorOf>central</mirrorOf> 
    </mirror>  
  </mirrors>

  <profiles>

  </profiles>

</settings>
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未过滤注释的:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>

<!--
Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
distributed with this work for additional information
regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
"License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at

    http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0

Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing,
software distributed under the License is distributed on an
"AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY
KIND, either express or implied.  See the License for the
specific language governing permissions and limitations
under the License.
-->

<!--
 | This is the configuration file for Maven. It can be specified at two levels:
 |
 |  1. User Level. This settings.xml file provides configuration for a single user,
 |                 and is normally provided in ${user.home}/.m2/settings.xml.
 |
 |                 NOTE: This location can be overridden with the CLI option:
 |
 |                 -s /path/to/user/settings.xml
 |
 |  2. Global Level. This settings.xml file provides configuration for all Maven
 |                 users on a machine (assuming they're all using the same Maven
 |                 installation). It's normally provided in
 |                 ${maven.conf}/settings.xml.
 |
 |                 NOTE: This location can be overridden with the CLI option:
 |
 |                 -gs /path/to/global/settings.xml
 |
 | The sections in this sample file are intended to give you a running start at
 | getting the most out of your Maven installation. Where appropriate, the default
 | values (values used when the setting is not specified) are provided.
 |
 |-->
<settings xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/SETTINGS/1.0.0"
          xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
          xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/SETTINGS/1.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/xsd/settings-1.0.0.xsd">
  <!-- localRepository
   | The path to the local repository maven will use to store artifacts.
   |
   | Default: ${user.home}/.m2/repository
  <localRepository>/path/to/local/repo</localRepository>
  本地仓库配置
  -->
<localRepository>E:\soft\apache-maven-3.5.3\local</localRepository>

  <!-- interactiveMode
   | This will determine whether maven prompts you when it needs input. If set to false,
   | maven will use a sensible default value, perhaps based on some other setting, for
   | the parameter in question.
   |
   | Default: true
  <interactiveMode>true</interactiveMode>
  -->

  <!-- offline
   | Determines whether maven should attempt to connect to the network when executing a build.
   | This will have an effect on artifact downloads, artifact deployment, and others.
   |
   | Default: false
  <offline>false</offline>
  -->

  <!-- pluginGroups
   | This is a list of additional group identifiers that will be searched when resolving plugins by their prefix, i.e.
   | when invoking a command line like "mvn prefix:goal". Maven will automatically add the group identifiers
   | "org.apache.maven.plugins" and "org.codehaus.mojo" if these are not already contained in the list.
   |-->
  <pluginGroups>
    <!-- pluginGroup
     | Specifies a further group identifier to use for plugin lookup.
    <pluginGroup>com.your.plugins</pluginGroup>
    -->
  </pluginGroups>

  <!-- proxies
   | This is a list of proxies which can be used on this machine to connect to the network.
   | Unless otherwise specified (by system property or command-line switch), the first proxy
   | specification in this list marked as active will be used.
   |-->
  <proxies>
    <!-- proxy
     | Specification for one proxy, to be used in connecting to the network.
     |
    <proxy>
      <id>optional</id>
      <active>true</active>
      <protocol>http</protocol>
      <username>proxyuser</username>
      <password>proxypass</password>
      <host>proxy.host.net</host>
      <port>80</port>
      <nonProxyHosts>local.net|some.host.com</nonProxyHosts>
    </proxy>
    -->
  </proxies>

  <!-- servers
   | This is a list of authentication profiles, keyed by the server-id used within the system.
   | Authentication profiles can be used whenever maven must make a connection to a remote server.
   |-->
  <servers>
    <!-- server
     | Specifies the authentication information to use when connecting to a particular server, identified by
     | a unique name within the system (referred to by the 'id' attribute below).
     |
     | NOTE: You should either specify username/password OR privateKey/passphrase, since these pairings are
     |       used together.
     |
    <server>
      <id>deploymentRepo</id>
      <username>repouser</username>
      <password>repopwd</password>
    </server>
    -->

    <!-- Another sample, using keys to authenticate.
    <server>
      <id>siteServer</id>
      <privateKey>/path/to/private/key</privateKey>
      <passphrase>optional; leave empty if not used.</passphrase>
    </server>
    -->
  </servers>

  <!-- mirrors
   | This is a list of mirrors to be used in downloading artifacts from remote repositories.
   |
   | It works like this: a POM may declare a repository to use in resolving certain artifacts.
   | However, this repository may have problems with heavy traffic at times, so people have mirrored
   | it to several places.
   |
   | That repository definition will have a unique id, so we can create a mirror reference for that
   | repository, to be used as an alternate download site. The mirror site will be the preferred
   | server for that repository.
   |-->
  <mirrors>
    <!-- mirror
     | Specifies a repository mirror site to use instead of a given repository. The repository that
     | this mirror serves has an ID that matches the mirrorOf element of this mirror. IDs are used
     | for inheritance and direct lookup purposes, and must be unique across the set of mirrors.
     |
    <mirror>
      <id>mirrorId</id>
      <mirrorOf>repositoryId</mirrorOf>
      <name>Human Readable Name for this Mirror.</name>
      <url>http://my.repository.com/repo/path</url>
    </mirror>
     -->
    <mirror>  
      <id>aliyun</id>  
      <name>aliyun</name>  
      <url>http://maven.aliyun.com/nexus/content/groups/public/</url>
      <mirrorOf>central</mirrorOf> 
    </mirror>  
  </mirrors>

  <!-- profiles
   | This is a list of profiles which can be activated in a variety of ways, and which can modify
   | the build process. Profiles provided in the settings.xml are intended to provide local machine-
   | specific paths and repository locations which allow the build to work in the local environment.
   |
   | For example, if you have an integration testing plugin - like cactus - that needs to know where
   | your Tomcat instance is installed, you can provide a variable here such that the variable is
   | dereferenced during the build process to configure the cactus plugin.
   |
   | As noted above, profiles can be activated in a variety of ways. One way - the activeProfiles
   | section of this document (settings.xml) - will be discussed later. Another way essentially
   | relies on the detection of a system property, either matching a particular value for the property,
   | or merely testing its existence. Profiles can also be activated by JDK version prefix, where a
   | value of '1.4' might activate a profile when the build is executed on a JDK version of '1.4.2_07'.
   | Finally, the list of active profiles can be specified directly from the command line.
   |
   | NOTE: For profiles defined in the settings.xml, you are restricted to specifying only artifact
   |       repositories, plugin repositories, and free-form properties to be used as configuration
   |       variables for plugins in the POM.
   |
   |-->
  <profiles>
    <!-- profile
     | Specifies a set of introductions to the build process, to be activated using one or more of the
     | mechanisms described above. For inheritance purposes, and to activate profiles via <activatedProfiles/>
     | or the command line, profiles have to have an ID that is unique.
     |
     | An encouraged best practice for profile identification is to use a consistent naming convention
     | for profiles, such as 'env-dev', 'env-test', 'env-production', 'user-jdcasey', 'user-brett', etc.
     | This will make it more intuitive to understand what the set of introduced profiles is attempting
     | to accomplish, particularly when you only have a list of profile id's for debug.
     |
     | This profile example uses the JDK version to trigger activation, and provides a JDK-specific repo.
    <profile>
      <id>jdk-1.4</id>

      <activation>
        <jdk>1.4</jdk>
      </activation>

      <repositories>
        <repository>
          <id>jdk14</id>
          <name>Repository for JDK 1.4 builds</name>
          <url>http://www.myhost.com/maven/jdk14</url>
          <layout>default</layout>
          <snapshotPolicy>always</snapshotPolicy>
        </repository>
      </repositories>
    </profile>
    -->

    <!--
     | Here is another profile, activated by the system property 'target-env' with a value of 'dev',
     | which provides a specific path to the Tomcat instance. To use this, your plugin configuration
     | might hypothetically look like:
     |
     | ...
     | <plugin>
     |   <groupId>org.myco.myplugins</groupId>
     |   <artifactId>myplugin</artifactId>
     |
     |   <configuration>
     |     <tomcatLocation>${tomcatPath}</tomcatLocation>
     |   </configuration>
     | </plugin>
     | ...
     |
     | NOTE: If you just wanted to inject this configuration whenever someone set 'target-env' to
     |       anything, you could just leave off the <value/> inside the activation-property.
     |
    <profile>
      <id>env-dev</id>

      <activation>
        <property>
          <name>target-env</name>
          <value>dev</value>
        </property>
      </activation>

      <properties>
        <tomcatPath>/path/to/tomcat/instance</tomcatPath>
      </properties>
    </profile>
    -->
  </profiles>

  <!-- activeProfiles
   | List of profiles that are active for all builds.
   |
  <activeProfiles>
    <activeProfile>alwaysActiveProfile</activeProfile>
    <activeProfile>anotherAlwaysActiveProfile</activeProfile>
  </activeProfiles>
  -->
</settings>
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祝你学习愉快!

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