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手撸基于ES6 的PromiseA+ 规范实现 Promise

手撸基于ES6 的PromiseA+ 规范实现 Promise

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Promise 到底解决了什么问题?

大家都知道 Promise 解决了回调地狱的问题,但是到底什么是回调地狱? 他到底哪儿have some wrong ? 是因为嵌套回调还是,还是回调执行顺序问题,还是不够美观?

回调地狱

来脑补一下,实现一个说话的需求,说完才能说下一句,那么很容易的写出下面这样的一段代码

function say (word, callback) {
  console.log(word)
  setTimeout(() => {
    callback&&callback()
  },1000)
}
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ok! fine!! 那么现在要说话了

say("first", function () {
  say("second", function () {
    say("third", function () {
      console.log("end");
    });
  });
});
// first second third  end
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在这个例子中的嵌套的问题仅仅是缩进的问题,而缩进除了会让代码变宽可能会造成读代码的一点不方便之外,并没有什么其他的问题。如果仅仅是这样,为什么不叫“缩进地狱”或“嵌套地狱”?

把回调地狱完全理解成缩进的问题是常见的对回调地狱的误解。要回到“回调地狱”这个词语上面来,它的重点就在于“回调”,而“回调”在JS中应用最多的场景当然就是异步编程了。

所以,“回调地狱”所说的嵌套其实是指异步的嵌套。它带来了两个问题:可读性的问题和信任问题

可读性问题

很容易找到一个这样执行顺序问题的问题

for (var i = 0; i < 5; i++) {
  setTimeout(function() {
    console.log(new Date, i);
  }, 1000);
}

console.log(new Date, i);
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很好,结果不那么重要,但是你总得想那么一会吧。想代码的执行顺序问题,那么你必须熟知异步代码的执行机制,还要能很快的分析出想要的结果,

so 你能做到么。

信任问题

好的,让我们接着脑补一下,你是华夏某银行的少主,你的一个程序员写下了一段代码,调用了三方的ajax 扣款请求,但是由于三方库机制问题,调用了多次。

那么,你能很好的信任回调么。还会不会有其他的信任问题发生呢。

so

  • 回调时机不对(早/晚)
  • 多次执行回调
  • 成功失败同时执行

...

实际问题在于控制权转交给了第三方,不可控的执行导致了我们最头疼的信任问题,实际在开发中,我们需要检查的状态更多,依赖更多。信任问题带来的成本,就大大导致了可读性降低,需要更多的代码来check。

虽然这些 fail 出现的概率并不高,可能在你编码的时候都没有关注到,但是实际上却需要很多臃肿的代码去强壮他,这就不够友好了。

实际上万能的开发者们也想了很多方法来解决信任问题

  • for example
// 增加失败回调
function sendAjax(onSuccess,onFail) {
  if(success) {
    onSuccess&&onSuccess()
  }else{
    onFail&&onFail()
  }
}
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  • example again
// node error first
fs.stat(file, (err, stat) => {
  if (err) {
    doSomeThing()
  } else {
    doOtherThing()
  }
})
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实际上这并没有解决所有的问题,诸如回调多次执行,复杂场景下的回调问题。

小总结 异步回调带来的问题主要集中在 可读性差/信任问题

Promise 如何解决这些问题

介绍

首先我们来看一下 PromiseA+ 规范的第一句话

An open standard for sound, interoperable JavaScript promises—by implementers, for implementers.

一个开放的标准,用于实施者对实施者的声音,可互操作的JavaScript保证。

A promise represents the eventual result of an asynchronous operation. The primary way of interacting with a promise is through its then method, which registers callbacks to receive either a promise’s eventual value or the reason why the promise cannot be fulfilled.

一个promise表示异步操作的最终结果。 与诺言互动的主要方式是通过then方法,该方法注册回调以接收诺言的最终值或诺言无法实现的原因。

This specification details the behavior of the then method, providing an interoperable base which all Promises/A+ conformant promise implementations can be depended on to provide. As such, the specification should be considered very stable. Although the Promises/A+ organization may occasionally revise this specification with minor backward-compatible changes to address newly-discovered corner cases, we will integrate large or backward-incompatible changes only after careful consideration, discussion, and testing.

该规范详细说明了then方法的行为,提供了一个可互操作的基础,所有Promises / A +符合诺言的实现都可以依靠该基础来提供。 因此,该规范应被视为非常稳定。 尽管Promises / A +组织有时会通过向后兼容的微小更改来修订此规范,以解决新发现的极端情况,但只有经过仔细考虑,讨论和测试之后,我们才会集成大型或向后不兼容的更改。

1.0 Terminology 概念术语

  • promise is an object or function with a then method whose behavior conforms to this specification.
  • thenable is an object or function that defines a then method.
  • value is any legal JavaScript value (including undefined, a thenable, or a promise).
  • exception is a value that is thrown using the throw statement.
  • reason is a value that indicates why a promise was rejected.

2.0 Requirements 要求 (实现)

对于创建一个可互操作的javascript保证的标准来说,要解决的问题无非就是状态管理,注册回调事件,和可靠的承诺解决体系

**PromiseA+**规范实际上就从这三点出发,定义了三种标准。

那么我们来开始写我们的代码,基于es6 class

class Promise {
  constructor(executor) {
    // PromiseA+...
  }
}
module.exports = Promise;
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2.1Promise States

A promise must be in one of three states: pending, fulfilled, or rejected.

一个Promise 必须处于pending``fulfilled``rejected三种状态之间

  • 2.1.1When pending, a promise:
    • 2.1.1.1may transition to either the fulfilled or rejected state.
  • 2.1.2When fulfilled, a promise:
    • 2.1.2.1must not transition to any other state.
    • 2.1.2.2must have a value, which must not change.
  • 2.1.3When rejected, a promise:
    • 2.1.3.1must not transition to any other state.
    • 2.1.3.2must have a reason, which must not change.

Here, “must not change” means immutable identity (i.e. ===), but does not imply deep immutability.

这里实际上定义了Promise 的状态转换关系,定义了

  • 初始pending状态,可以转换为其他两个状态
  • 处于成功失败状态不能够转换到其他状态,必须有对应的成功值value or 失败原因reason
  • 失败状态原因引用不可更改

so!!! do it

class Promise {
  constructor(executor) {
    // 定义初始化状态常量
    this.PENDING = 'pending';//初始态
    this.FULFILLED = 'fulfilled';//初始态
    this.REJECTED = 'rejected';//初始态


    // PromiseA+ 2.1.1.1
    // 初始化状态
    this.status = this.PENDING;

    // PromiseA+ 2.1
    // 定义缓存通过then注册的成功失败回调的数组,支持 then 方法注册多个回调
    this.onResolveCallbacks = [];
    this.onRejectCallbacks = [];

    // 缓存this,避免this指向问题导致bug
    const self = this;

    // 定义成功失败方法,作为Promise 传入的函数体的参数
    // 实现PromiseA+状态转换 定义成功失败参数
    function reject(v) {
      // Here, “must not change” means immutable identity (i.e. ===), but does not imply deep immutability.
      const reason = v;
      //PromiseA+ 2.1.3
      if (self.status === self.PENDING) {
        self.status = self.REJECTED;
        self.value = reason;
        self.onRejectCallbacks.forEach(item => item(self.value));
      }
    }
    function resolve(value) {
      //PromiseA+ 2.1.2
      if (self.status === self.PENDING) {
        self.status = self.FULFILLED;
        self.value = value;
        self.onResolveCallbacks.forEach(item => item(self.value));
      }
    }

    // 开始执行函数体,捕获错误。执行报错则直接拒绝Promise
    try {
      executor(resolve, reject);
    } catch (error) {
      reject(error);
    }


  }
}
module.exports = Promise;
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new Promise过程已经实现了

2.2The then Method

A promise must provide a then method to access its current or eventual value or reason.

A promise’s then method accepts two arguments:

promise.then(onFulfilled, onRejected)
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那么在类上定义方法


class Promise {
  constructor(executor) {
    ...
  }
  
  // PromiseA+ 2.2 // PromiseA+ 2.2.6
  then(onFulfilled, onRejected) {

  }
}
module.exports = Promise;
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  • 2.2.1 Both onFulfilled and onRejected are optional arguments:

    • 2.2.1.1 If onFulfilled is not a function, it must be ignored.
    • 2.2.1.2 If onRejected is not a function, it must be ignored.
  • 2.2.2 If onFulfilled is a function:

    • 2.2.2.1 it must be called after promise is fulfilled, with promise’s value as its first argument.
    • 2.2.2.2 it must not be called before promise is fulfilled.
    • 2.2.2.3 it must not be called more than once.
  • 2.2.3 If onRejected is a function,

    • 2.2.3.1 it must be called after promise is rejected, with promise’s reason as its first argument.
    • 2.2.3.2 it must not be called before promise is rejected.
    • 2.2.3.3 it must not be called more than once.
  • 成功/失败回调必须是一个funciton,不是函数将被忽略
  • 成功/失败回调必须在 成功/失败 之后被调用,第一个参数必须是value/reason
  • 成功/失败回调不能调用多次
  • 2.2.4onFulfilled or onRejected must not be called until the execution context stack contains only platform code. [3.1].

成功/失败回调 不能在Promise 平台代码执行完之前被调用,意义在于防止调用时还有回调没有被注册进来

  • 2.2.5onFulfilled and onRejected must be called as functions (i.e. with no this value). [3.2]

成功/失败回调 必须作为函数被调用,如果拿到的参数不是函数,忽略它,生成默认的同步执行函数,以相同的值执行后续回调

  • 2.2.6then may be called multiple times on the same promise.
    • 2.2.6.1If/when promise is fulfilled, all respective onFulfilled callbacks must execute in the order of their originating calls to then.
    • 2.2.6.2If/when promise is rejected, all respective onRejected callbacks must execute in the order of their originating calls to then.
  • then 方法可能被同一个promise 调用多次
  • then 方法注册的成功/失败回调必须被以注册的顺序执行
  • 2.2.7then must return a promise [3.3].
    • 2.2.7.1If either onFulfilled or onRejected returns a value x, run the Promise Resolution Procedure [[Resolve]](promise2, x).
    • 2.2.7.2If either onFulfilled or onRejected throws an exception e, promise2 must be rejected with e as the reason.
    • 2.2.7.3If onFulfilled is not a function and promise1 is fulfilled, promise2 must be fulfilled with the same value as promise1.
    • 2.2.7.4If onRejected is not a function and promise1 is rejected, promise2 must be rejected with the same reason as promise1.
promise2 = promise1.then(onFulfilled, onRejected);
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  • then 方法必须返回一个Promise instance
  • promise1 成功或则失败回调正确执行拿到一个返回值value x 运行Promise Resolution Procedure解析程序[Resolve]](promise2, x)
  • promise1 拒绝throws an exception e ,就以相同的原因拒绝promise2
  • promise1成功/失败回调 不是一个function 而且promise1 成功/失败时,promise2必须以相同的value/e 被成功或者拒绝

so!!! do it!!!

PromiseA+ 2.2.4 onFulfilled or onRejected must not be called until the execution context stack contains only platform code.

为了防止在平台代码执行完毕,完全注册回调之前调用回调,采用宏任务setTimeout0实现 ::: details 展开查看constructor

constructor(executor) {
  this.PENDING = 'pending';//初始态
  this.FULFILLED = 'fulfilled';//初始态
  this.REJECTED = 'rejected';//初始态
  //PromiseA+ 2.1.1.1
  this.status = this.PENDING;

  // PromiseA+ 2.1
  this.onResolveCallbacks = [];
  this.onRejectCallbacks = [];


  const self = this;
  function reject(v) {
    const reason = v;
    // PromiseA+ 2.2.4
    setTimeout(() => {
      //PromiseA+ 2.1.3
      if (self.status === self.PENDING) {
        self.status = self.REJECTED;
        self.value = reason;
        // console.dir(self);
        // console.log('------self--------------------------------');
        self.onRejectCallbacks.forEach(item => item(self.value));
      }
    });

  }
  function resolve(value) {
    // PromiseA+ 2.2.4
    setTimeout(() => {
      //PromiseA+ 2.1.2
      if (self.status === self.PENDING) {
        self.status = self.FULFILLED;
        self.value = value;
        self.onResolveCallbacks.forEach(item => item(self.value));
      }
    });
  }
  try {
    executor(resolve, reject);
  } catch (error) {
    reject(error);
  }
}
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:::


class Promise {
  constructor(executor) {
    ...
  }
  

  resolvePromise(promise2, x, resolve, reject) {

  }

  // PromiseA+ 2.2 // PromiseA+ 2.2.6
  then(onFulfilled, onRejected) {
    //缓存this
    const self = this;
    //PromiseA+ 2.2.1 / PromiseA+ 2.2.5 / PromiseA+ 2.2.7.3 / PromiseA+ 2.2.7.4
    onFulfilled = typeof onFulfilled === 'function' ? onFulfilled : x => x;
    onRejected = typeof onRejected === 'function' ? onRejected : e => { throw e; };

    let promise2;

    function fulfillCallback(resolve, reject) {
      // PromiseA+ 2.2.4
      setTimeout(() => {
        try {
          const x = onFulfilled(self.value);
          //PromiseA+ 2.2.7.1
          self.resolvePromise(promise2, x, resolve, reject);
        } catch (error) {
          //PromiseA+ 2.2.7.2
          reject(error);
        }
      });
    }
    function rejectCallback(resolve, reject) {
      // PromiseA+ 2.2.4
      setTimeout(() => {
        try {
          const e = onRejected(self.value);
          //PromiseA+ 2.2.7.1
          self.resolvePromise(promise2, e, resolve, reject);
        } catch (error) {
          //PromiseA+ 2.2.7.2
          reject(error);
        }
      });
    }

    // PromiseA+ 2.2.2
    if (self.status === self.FULFILLED) {
      //PromiseA+ 2.2.7
      return promise2 = new Promise((resolve, reject) => {
        fulfillCallback(resolve, reject);
      });

    }
    // PromiseA+ 2.2.3
    if (self.status === self.REJECTED) {
      //PromiseA+ 2.2.7
      return promise2 = new Promise((resolve, reject) => {
        rejectCallback(resolve, reject);
      });
    }
    if (self.status === self.PENDING) {
      //PromiseA+ 2.2.7
      return promise2 = new Promise((resolve, reject) => {
        self.onResolveCallbacks.push(() => {
          fulfillCallback(resolve, reject);
        });

        self.onRejectCallbacks.push(() => {
          rejectCallback(resolve, reject);
        });
      });
    }
  }
}
module.exports = Promise;
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so 2.2.7.1 是个什么鬼!!鬼!!鬼啊!!!!

接着看下去吧

2.3The Promise Resolution Procedure

::: danger 交互性 javascript 保证 If either onFulfilled or onRejected returns a value x, run the Promise Resolution Procedure [[Resolve]](promise2, x).

promise1 成功或则失败回调正确执行拿到一个返回值value x 运行Promise Resolution Procedure解析程序[Resolve]](promise2, x) :::

The promise resolution procedure is an abstract operation taking as input a promise and a value, which we denote as [[Resolve]](promise, x). If x is a thenable, it attempts to make promise adopt the state of x, under the assumption that x behaves at least somewhat like a promise. Otherwise, it fulfills promise with the value x.

This treatment of thenables allows promise implementations to interoperate, as long as they expose a Promises/A+-compliant then method. It also allows Promises/A+ implementations to “assimilate” nonconformant implementations with reasonable then methods.

promise resolution procedurepromise 解决程序实际上是一种承诺实现的抽象,将promise 和值x 作为输入,表示为[[Resolve]](promise,x) 如果x是可能的,则在x的行为至少类似于承诺的假设下,尝试使承诺采用x的状态。 否则,它将以值x履行承诺。

这种对可实现对象的处理使答应实现可以互操作,只要它们公开了符合Promises / A +的then方法即可。 它还允许Promises / A +实现使用合理的then方法“整合”不合格的实现。

想要运行 promise resolution procedure, 需要遵循瞎下面的规范。

  • 2.3.1 If promise and x refer to the same object, reject promise with a TypeError as the reason.

如果promisex指向同一个对象,以一个TypeError作为原因拒绝promise

  • 2.3.2 If x is a promise, adopt its state [3.4]:
    • 2.3.2.1 If x is pending, promise must remain pending until x is fulfilled or rejected.
    • 2.3.2.2 If/when x is fulfilled, fulfill promise with the same value.
    • 2.3.2.3 If/when x is rejected, reject promise with the same reason.

如果x是一个promise(是自己的实例instanceof) 采用下面的状态

  • 如果xpending状态,promise2必须保持pending状态直到xfulfilled/rejected
  • 如果xfulfilled/rejectedpromise2 必须保持 x 相同的 value/reasonfulfilled/rejected
  • 2.3.3 Otherwise, if x is an object or function,

    • 2.3.3.1 Let then be x.then. [3.5]

    • 2.3.3.2 If retrieving the property x.then results in a thrown exception e, reject promise with e as the reason.

    • 2.3.3.3 If then is a function, call it with x as this, first argument resolvePromise, and second argument rejectPromise, where:

      • 2.3.3.3.1 If/when resolvePromise is called with a value y, run [[Resolve]](promise, y).

      • 2.3.3.3.2 If/when rejectPromise is called with a reason r, reject promise with r.

      • 2.3.3.3.3 If both resolvePromise and rejectPromise are called, or multiple calls to the same argument are made, the first call takes precedence, and any further calls are ignored.

      • 2.3.3.3.4 If calling then throws an exception e,

        • 2.3.3.3.4.1 If resolvePromise or rejectPromise have been called, ignore it.
        • 2.3.3.3.4.2 Otherwise, reject promise with e as the reason.
    • 2.3.3.4 If then is not a function, fulfill promise with x.

  • 2.3.3.4 If x is not an object or function, fulfill promise with x.

x 是一个object or function 此时可能是一个同步的处理函数,也可能是一个thenable 对象

  • 访问xthen 属性 实际上该操作可能会报错,一般来说访问一个对象的属性不会报错,但是如果该属性是一个 getter 的时候,在执行getter 的时候可能会抛异常e。此时应该以e 来拒绝peomise2
  • then 是一个function,通过then.call(x)调用它,同时给x注册成功处理函数和失败处理函数,
    • 当成功回调被执行并传入y的时候,运行[[Resolve]](promise, y) 继续解析。
    • 当失败回调被执行并传入e的时候,把e作为reason拒绝promise2
  • 如果成功失败回调被多次调用,那么第一次的调用将优先调用,其他的调用将被忽略,这里需要添加called 标志是否被调用,在每次调用成功失败时校验,并调用时立马修改标志位状态
  • 如果x不是function 对象那么以x实现promise
  • 如果x不是thenable 对象那么以x实现promise

解析程序实际上保证了promise 的可靠性,对thenable对象状态的判断,循环解析,直到x作为一个普通的不能在被解析的非thenable才实现调用,对错误的处理也贯彻整个流程,而且保证了调用的唯一性。 这实现了那句可互操作的JavaScript保证。

那么,让我们来一步一步的实现它吧

resolvePromise(promise2, x, resolve, reject) {
  const self = this;
  // PromiseA+ 2.3.1
  if (promise2 === x) { return reject(new TypeError('循环引用')); }


  // PromiseA+ 2.3.2
  if (x instanceof Promise) {
    if (x.status === self.PENDING) {
      // PromiseA+ 2.3.2.1
      x.then(function(y) { self.resolvePromise(promise2, y, resolve, reject); }, reject);
    } else {
      // PromiseA+ 2.3.2.2  /PromiseA+ 2.3.2.3
      x.then(resolve, reject);
    }
    // PromiseA+ 2.3.3
  } else if (x && ((typeof x === 'object') || (typeof x === 'function'))) {
    // PromiseA+ 2.3.3.3.3  / PromiseA+ 2.3.3.3.4.1
    let called = false;
    try {
      // PromiseA+ 2.3.3.1
      const then = x.then;
      // PromiseA+ 2.3.3.3
      if (typeof then === 'function') {
        try {
          then.call(
            x,
            function(y) {
              if (called) return;
              called = true;
              // PromiseA+ 2.3.3.3.1
              self.resolvePromise(promise2, y, resolve, reject);
            },
            function(e) {
              if (called) return;
              called = true;
              // PromiseA+ 2.3.3.3.2
              reject(e);
            }
          );
        } catch (e) {
          if (called) return;
          called = true;
          // PromiseA+ 2.3.3.3.2
          reject(e);
        }

      } else {
        // PromiseA+ 2.3.3.4
        resolve(x);
      }

    } catch (error) {
      if (called) return;
      called = true;
      // PromiseA+ 2.3.3.2 / PromiseA+ 2.3.3.4.2
      reject(error);
    }
  } else {
    // PromiseA+ 2.3.4
    resolve(x);
  }
}
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Promise.all/race/resolve/reject

到此PromiseA+规范已经完全实现,原则上所有的Promise 库都应该遵循此规范,现代浏览器支持的promise 都支持一些Promise.allPromise.racePromise.resolvePromise.reject,接下来让我们来实现它

//all 实现
Promise.all = function(promises) {
  //promises是一个promise的数组
  return new Promise(function (resolve, reject) {
    const arr = []; //arr是最终返回值的结果
    let i = 0; // 表示成功了多少次
    function processData(index, y) {
      arr[index] = y;
      if (++i === promises.length) {
        resolve(arr);
      }
    }
    for (let i = 0; i < promises.length; i++) {
      promises[i].then(function (y) {
        processData(i, y);
      }, reject);
    }
  });
};

// race 实现
Promise.race = function (promises) {
  return new Promise(function (resolve, reject) {
    for (let i = 0; i < promises.length; i++) {
      promises[i].then(resolve, reject);
    }
  });
};

// Promise.resolve 实现
Promise.resolve = function (value) {
  return new Promise(function(resolve, reject) {
    resolve(value);
  });
};

// Promise.reject 实现
Promise.reject = function (reason) {
  return new Promise(function(resolve, reject) {
    reject(reason);
  });
};
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Promise 规范测试

Promises/A+ 一致化测试套件

usage

npm install promises-aplus-tests -g
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测试套件实际上是一个cli命令行工具,只需要在Promise 上暴露出一个fucntion接口deferred,函数返回一个对象,对象包含一个Promise 实例,和实例的resolve,reject 参数

Adapters In order to test your promise library, you must expose a very minimal adapter interface. These are written as Node.js modules with a few well-known exports:

  • resolved(value): creates a promise that is resolved with value.
  • rejected(reason): creates a promise that is already rejected with reason.
  • deferred(): creates an object consisting of { promise, resolve, reject }:
    • promise is a promise that is currently in the pending state.
    • resolve(value) resolves the promise with value.
    • reject(reason) moves the promise from the pending state to the rejected state, with rejection reason reason.
Promise.deferred = function () {
  const defer = {};
  defer.promise = new Promise(function (resolve, reject) {
    defer.resolve = resolve;
    defer.reject = reject;
  });
  return defer;
};
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进入到Promise.js所在目录,运行

promises-aplus-tests ./Promise.js
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or in package.json

"scripts": {
  "testa:promise": "promises-aplus-tests ./src/promise/Promise.js"
},
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那么顺利的话! 你讲看到这个

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