KVO实现原理

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博客链接KVO实现原理

在iOS开发中,我们可以通过KVO机制来监听某个对象的某个属性的变化。

KVO实现步骤

KVO的实现分为三步:

  1. - (void)addObserver:(NSObject *)observer forKeyPath:(NSString *)keyPath options:(NSKeyValueObservingOptions)options context:(nullable void *)context;

  2. - (void)observeValueForKeyPath:(NSString *)keyPath ofObject:(id)object change:(NSDictionary<NSKeyValueChangeKey,id> *)change context:(void *)context;

  3. - (void)removeObserver:(NSObject *)observer forKeyPath:(NSString *)keyPath;

KVO实现机制

KVO的实现依赖于RunTime,在Apple的文档中有提到过KVO的实现:

Automatic key-value observing is implemented using a technique called isa-swizzling.

The isa pointer, as the name suggests, points to the object's class which maintains a dispatch table. This dispatch table essentially contains pointers to the methods the class implements, among other data.

When an observer is registered for an attribute of an object the isa pointer of the observed object is modified, pointing to an intermediate class rather than at the true class. As a result the value of the isa pointer does not necessarily reflect the actual class of the instance.

You should never rely on the isa pointer to determine class membership. Instead, you should use the class method to determine the class of an object instance.

Apple的文档提到KVO是使用了isa-swizzling的技术。当观察者注册对象的属性时,观察对象的isa指针被修改,指向中间类而不是真正的类。因此,isa指针的值不一定反映实例的实际类。另外还提到我们不应该依赖isa指针来确定类成员资格,而是使用类方法来确定对象实例的类。

isa-swizzling

先用一段代码验证一下KVO的实现是不是进行了isa-swizzling

@interface KVOTestModel : NSObject
    
@property (nonatomic, copy) NSString *name;

- (void)printInfo;

@end

@implementation KVOTestModel

- (void)printInfo {
    NSLog(@"isa:%@, supper class:%@", NSStringFromClass(object_getClass(self)), class_getSuperclass(object_getClass(self)));
    NSLog(@"self:%@, [self superclass]:%@", self, [self superclass]);
    NSLog(@"name setter function pointer:%p", class_getMethodImplementation(object_getClass(self), @selector(setName:)));
    NSLog(@"printInfo function pointer:%p", class_getMethodImplementation(object_getClass(self), @selector(printInfo)));
}

@end
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ViewController中使用KVO监听KVOTestMod对象的相关属性:

#pragma mark - Lifceycle

- (void)viewDidLoad {
    [super viewDidLoad];
    
    self.kvoTestModel = [[KVOTestModel alloc] init];
    NSLog(@"Before KVO ---------------------------------------");
    [self.kvoTestModel printInfo];
    [self.kvoTestModel addObserver:self
                        forKeyPath:@"name"
                           options:NSKeyValueObservingOptionNew
                           context:nil];
    NSLog(@"After KVO ---------------------------------------");
    [self.kvoTestModel printInfo];
    [self.kvoTestModel removeObserver:self forKeyPath:@"name"];
    NSLog(@"Remove KVO ---------------------------------------");
    [self.kvoTestModel printInfo];
}

#pragma mark - KVO

- (void)observeValueForKeyPath:(NSString *)keyPath
                      ofObject:(id)object
                        change:(NSDictionary<NSKeyValueChangeKey,id> *)change
                       context:(void *)context {
}
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打印一下结果:

isa-swizzling

添加KVO之后,isa已经替换成了NSKVONotifying_Person,而根据class_getSuperclass得到的结果竟然是Person, 然后name是使我们KVO需要观察的属性,它的setter函数指针变了。

这里先直接总结KVO的实现原理:

  • add observer

    1. 通过runtime生成一个以NSKVONotifying_+类名的形式来命名的派生类;
    2. 将被观察的对象的isa指针指向这个派生类;
    3. 重写派生类的setter方法,重写setter方法的本质是在赋值语句之前调用willChangeValueForKey,赋值之后调用didChangeValueForKey,在didChangeValueForKey中调用observeValueForKeyPath:ofObject:change:context:方法。
  • remove observer

    将其的isa指针指向原来的类对象中

KVO派生类

在使用了KVO添加了观察者以后,runtime会生成一个NSKVONotifying_开头的派生类,那这个类做了些什么呢?验证代码如下:

// KVOTestModel类

@interface KVOTestModel : NSObject

@property (nonatomic, copy) NSString *name;

@end

@implementation KVOTestModel

@end

// 打印类的方法列表
void printClassMethod(Class aClass) {
    unsigned int count;
    Method *methodList = class_copyMethodList(aClass, &count);
    NSMutableString *methodNames = [NSMutableString string];
    
    for (int i = 0; i < count; i++) {
        Method aMethod =methodList[i];
        NSString *aMethodString = NSStringFromSelector(method_getName(aMethod));
        [methodNames appendString:[NSString stringWithFormat:@"%@, ", aMethodString]];
    }
    
    free(methodList);
    
    NSLog(@"%@", methodNames);
}

//调用代码
- (void)viewDidLoad {
    [super viewDidLoad];
    
    self.kvoTestModel = [[KVOTestModel alloc] init];
    self.kvoTestModel2 = [[KVOTestModel alloc] init];
    
    [self.kvoTestModel addObserver:self
                        forKeyPath:@"name"
                           options:NSKeyValueObservingOptionNew
                           context:nil];
    
    printClassMethod(object_getClass(self.kvoTestModel));
    printClassMethod(object_getClass(self.kvoTestModel2));
}
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执行结果如下:

kvo派生类

从上面的结果可以得出,派生类重写了四个方法分别是:

  1. 重写Setter方法;
  2. 重写Class方法,苹果官方并不想让我们知道KVO的具体实现,所以重写了Class方法以返回其原来的类,这也证实了使用了KVO的实例对象为什么调用class方法和object_getClass方法但是结果不一样;
  3. 实现了dealloc方法,用来实现KVO的一些收尾工作;
  4. 实现了_isKVOA方法,应该是KVO内部的一个私有方法;

重写Setter方法

上面提到必须是派生类重写setter方法,如果是直接对属性进行赋值的话,是不会触发KVO的。虽然Apple并没有开源KVO的代码,但是我们可以通过验证的方式进行推导。

KVOTestModel文件中添加以下代码:

#pragma mark - Override

- (void)willChangeValueForKey:(NSString *)key {
    NSLog(@"willChangeValueForKey beigin");
    
    [super willChangeValueForKey:key];
    
    NSLog(@"willChangeValueForKey end");
}

- (void)didChangeValueForKey:(NSString *)key {
    NSLog(@"didChangeValueForKey beigin");
    
    [super didChangeValueForKey:key];
    
    NSLog(@"didChangeValueForKey end");
}

#pragma mark - Setter

- (void)setName:(NSString *)name {
    _name = name;
    
    NSLog(@"%s", __func__);
}
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打印结果:

setter

从上面的结果我们可以知道KVO在重写setter方法后大概分成三个步骤:

  1. 先调用willChangeValueForKey
  2. 调用父类的setter方法;
  3. 调用didChangeValueForKeydidChangeValueForKey中会调用KVO的相关代理方法来通知观察者。

keyPath

keyPath使用我们用来监听的属性,它的实质是什么?先看一段代码:

//Person.h
@interface Person : NSObject

@property (nonatomic, copy) NSString *nick;

@end

//Person.m
@synthesize nick = realNick;

- (void)setNick:(NSString *)nick {
    realNick = nick;
}

- (NSString *)nick {
    return realNick;
}

//ViewController
- (void)_testKeyPath {
    self.person = [[Person alloc] init];
    [self.person addObserver:self
                  forKeyPath:@"nick"//"realNick"
                     options:NSKeyValueObservingOptionNew | NSKeyValueObservingOptionOld
                     context:nil];
    self.person.nick = @"Nero";
    [self.person removeObserver:self forKeyPath:@"nick"];
}
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实际结果是,使用nick能够监听到对应变化,而使用真正的实例变量realNick时,无法监听到值。keyPath指向的并不是真正的实例变量,而是对于setter方法的关联,KVO会使用keypath作为后缀去寻找原类的setter方法的方法签名,和实际存取对象和属性名称没有关系。所以这也是为什么我们重命名了setter方法之后,没有办法再去使用KVO或KVC了,需要手动调用一次willChangeValue方法。

手动触发一个KVO

代码如下:

//Person
@interface Person : NSObject {
@public NSInteger age;
}

@end

//ViewController
- (void)_testImplementKVOManually {
    self.person = [[Person alloc] init];
    [self.person addObserver:self
                  forKeyPath:@"age"
                     options:NSKeyValueObservingOptionNew | NSKeyValueObservingOptionOld
                     context:nil];
    [self.person willChangeValueForKey:@"age"];//获取旧值
    self.person->age = 26;
    [self.person didChangeValueForKey:@"age"];//获取新值
    [self.person removeObserver:self forKeyPath:@"age"];
}
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KVO的跨线程监听

我们知道使用Notification时,跨线程发送通知是无法被接受到的,但是KVO是可以跨线程监听的。

- (void)_testKVOinGCD {
    dispatch_queue_t queue = dispatch_queue_create("test.concurrent.queue", DISPATCH_QUEUE_CONCURRENT);
    self.person = [Person new];
    dispatch_async(queue, ^{
        NSLog(@"%@", [NSDate date]);
        self.person.name = @"Nero";
    });
    
    dispatch_async(queue, ^{
        NSLog(@"%@", [NSDate date]);
        sleep(1);
        [self.person addObserver:self
                      forKeyPath:@"name"
                         options:NSKeyValueObservingOptionNew | NSKeyValueObservingOptionOld
                         context:nil];
        NSLog(@"%@", [NSDate date]);
    });
    
    dispatch_barrier_async(queue, ^{
        NSLog(@"%@", [NSDate date]);
        self.person.name = @"NeroXie";
    });
}
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可以看到在两个不同的线程里创建的Observer和Target,观察变化也是能够生效的。 这里使用了dispatch_barrier_async是确保第三个task在前两个task运行后再执行,而且使用的队列必须是自定义的并发队列,如果使用全局队列,栅栏就不想起作用了,因为dispatch_barrier_async相当于dispatch_asysc

KVO拾遗

  • 子类继承父类的一个属性(无论是否被暴露),当这个属性被改变时,KVO都能观察到。

因为继承的关系Father <- Son <- KVOSon,当我监听一个父类属性的keyPath的时候,Son实例同样可以通过消息查找找到父类的setter方法,再将该方法加入到KVOSon类当中去。

  • 子类继承父类属性并重写了它的setter方法,当这个属性被改变时,KVO能观察到。

在上一条中知道,其实子类监听父类属性,并不依赖继承,而是通过ISA指针在消息转发的时候能够获取到父类方法就足够。所以当我们重写父类setter方法,相当于在子类定义了该setter函数,在我们去用sel找方法签名时,直接在子类中就拿到了,甚至都不需要去到父类里。所以理解了KVO监听父类属性和继承没有直接联系这一点,就不再纠结set方法是否重写这个问题了。

补充:以Block的形式实现KVO

通过上面的API我们知道KVO的调用相对来说是有点繁琐的,所以我用Category实现了KVO的Block形式的调用

// 声明
@interface NSObject(KVOBlock)

- (NSString *)nn_addObserverForKeyPath:(NSString *)keyPath
                               options:(NSKeyValueObservingOptions)options
                            usingBlock:(void (^)(id obj, NSString *keyPath, NSDictionary *change))block;

- (void)nn_removeBlockObserverWithIdentifier:(NSString *)identifier;
- (void)nn_removeAllBlockObservers;

@end

// 实现
#pragma mark - NSObject+KVOBlock

static void *NNObserverBlockContext = &NNObserverBlockContext;

typedef void (^NNObserverBlock) (id obj, NSString *keyPath, NSDictionary<NSKeyValueChangeKey,id> *change);

#pragma mark - Private Class

@interface _NNInternalObserver : NSObject

@property (nonatomic, assign) BOOL isObserving;
@property (nonatomic, weak) id observed;
@property (nonatomic, copy) NSString *keyPath;
@property (nonatomic, copy) NNObserverBlock observerBlock;

@end

@implementation _NNInternalObserver

#pragma mark - Init

- (instancetype)initWithObserved:(id)observed
                         keyPath:(NSString *)keyPath
                   observerBlock:(NNObserverBlock)observerBlock {
    if ((self = [super init])) {
        self.isObserving = NO;
        self.observed = observed;
        self.keyPath = keyPath;
        self.observerBlock = [observerBlock copy];
    }
    
    return self;
}

- (void)dealloc {
    if (self.keyPath) [self stopObserving];
}

#pragma mark - Helper

- (void)startObservingWithOptions:(NSKeyValueObservingOptions)options {
    @synchronized(self) {
        if (self.isObserving) return;
        
        [self.observed addObserver:self forKeyPath:self.keyPath options:options context:NNObserverBlockContext];
        
        self.isObserving = YES;
    }
}

- (void)stopObserving {
    NSParameterAssert(self.keyPath);
    
    @synchronized (self) {
        if (!self.isObserving) return;
        if (!self.observed) return;
        
        [self.observed removeObserver:self forKeyPath:self.keyPath context:NNObserverBlockContext];
        
        self.observed = nil;
        self.keyPath = nil;
        self.observerBlock = nil;
    }
}

#pragma mark - KVO

- (void)observeValueForKeyPath:(NSString *)keyPath ofObject:(id)object change:(NSDictionary<NSKeyValueChangeKey,id> *)change context:(void *)context {
    if (context != NNObserverBlockContext) return;
    
    @synchronized (self) {
        self.observerBlock(object, keyPath, change);
    }
}

@end

@interface NSObject()

/** 保存所有的block */
@property (nonatomic, strong, setter=nn_setObserverBlockMap:) NSMutableDictionary *nn_observerBlockMap;

@end

@implementation NSObject(KVOBlock)

/** 所有修改过dealloc方法的类 */
+ (NSMutableSet *)nn_observedClasses {
    static dispatch_once_t onceToken;
    static NSMutableSet *classes = nil;
    dispatch_once(&onceToken, ^{
        classes = [[NSMutableSet alloc] init];
    });
    
    return classes;
}

#pragma mark - Public

- (NSString *)nn_addObserverForKeyPath:(NSString *)keyPath
                               options:(NSKeyValueObservingOptions)options
                                  usingBlock:(void (^)(id obj, NSString *keyPath, NSDictionary *change))block {
    NSString *identifier = [NSProcessInfo processInfo].globallyUniqueString;
    [self nn_addObserverForKeyPath:keyPath identifier:identifier options:options block:block];
    
    return identifier;
}

- (void)nn_removeBlockObserverWithIdentifier:(NSString *)identifier {
    NSParameterAssert(identifier.length);
    
    NSMutableDictionary *dict;
    
    @synchronized (self) {
        dict = self.nn_observerBlockMap;
        if (!dict) return;
    }
    
    _NNInternalObserver *observer = dict[identifier];
    [observer stopObserving];
    [dict removeObjectForKey:identifier];
    if (dict.count == 0) self.nn_observerBlockMap = nil;
}


- (void)nn_removeAllBlockObservers {
    NSDictionary *dict;
    
    @synchronized (self) {
        dict = [self.nn_observerBlockMap copy];
        self.nn_observerBlockMap = nil;
    }
    
    [dict.allValues enumerateObjectsUsingBlock:^(_NNInternalObserver *obj, NSUInteger idx, BOOL * _Nonnull stop) {
        [obj stopObserving];
    }];
}

#pragma mark - Core Method

/**
 KVO Block 实现
 
 @param keyPath     被观察的属性
 @param identifier  唯一标识符 用来标记内部观察者
 @param options     观察选项
 @param block       KVO Block
 */
- (void)nn_addObserverForKeyPath:(NSString *)keyPath
                      identifier:(NSString *)identifier
                         options:(NSKeyValueObservingOptions)options
                            block:(NNObserverBlock)block {
    NSParameterAssert(keyPath.length);
    NSParameterAssert(identifier.length);
    NSParameterAssert(block);
    
    Class classToSwizzle = self.class;
    NSMutableSet *classes = self.class.nn_observedClasses;
    @synchronized (classes) {
        NSString *className = NSStringFromClass(classToSwizzle);
        if (![classes containsObject:className]) {
            SEL deallocSelector = sel_registerName("dealloc");
            
            __block void (*originalDealloc)(__unsafe_unretained id, SEL) = NULL;
            
            id newDealloc = ^(__unsafe_unretained id objSelf) {
                [objSelf nn_removeAllBlockObservers];
                
                if (originalDealloc == NULL) {
                    struct objc_super superInfo = {
                        .receiver = objSelf,
                        .super_class = class_getSuperclass(classToSwizzle)
                    };
                    
                    void (*msgSend)(struct objc_super *, SEL) = (__typeof__(msgSend))objc_msgSendSuper;
                    msgSend(&superInfo, deallocSelector);
                } else {
                    originalDealloc(objSelf, deallocSelector);
                }
            };
            
            IMP newDeallocIMP = imp_implementationWithBlock(newDealloc);
            
            if (!class_addMethod(classToSwizzle, deallocSelector, newDeallocIMP, "v@:")) {
                Method deallocMethod = class_getInstanceMethod(classToSwizzle, deallocSelector);
                originalDealloc = (void(*)(__unsafe_unretained id, SEL))method_getImplementation(deallocMethod);
                originalDealloc = (void(*)(__unsafe_unretained id, SEL))method_setImplementation(deallocMethod, newDeallocIMP);
            }
            
            [classes addObject:className];
        }
    }
    
    _NNInternalObserver *observer = [[_NNInternalObserver alloc] initWithObserved:self
                                                                          keyPath:keyPath
                                                                    observerBlock:block];
    [observer startObservingWithOptions:options];
    
    @synchronized (self) {
        if (!self.nn_observerBlockMap) self.nn_observerBlockMap = [NSMutableDictionary dictionary];
    }
    
    self.nn_observerBlockMap[identifier] = observer;
}

#pragma mark - Setter & Getter

- (void)nn_setObserverBlockMap:(NSMutableDictionary *)nn_observerBlockMap {
    objc_setAssociatedObject(self, @selector(nn_observerBlockMap), nn_observerBlockMap, OBJC_ASSOCIATION_RETAIN_NONATOMIC);
}

- (NSMutableDictionary *)nn_observerBlockMap {
    return objc_getAssociatedObject(self, @selector(nn_observerBlockMap));
}

@end

// 调用
self.kvoTestModel = [[KVOTestModel alloc] init];

NSString *identifier =
[self.kvoTestModel nn_addObserverForKeyPath:@"name"
                                    options:NSKeyValueObservingOptionNew
                                 usingBlock:^(id obj, NSString *keyPath, NSDictionary *change) {
                                     NSLog(@"%@", change);
                                 }];

self.kvoTestModel.name = @"Nero";

// 手动结束KVO监听
[self.kvoTestModel nn_removeBlockObserverWithIdentifier:identifier];
    
// 自动结束KVO监听
self.kvoTestModel = nil;
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