Android组件化 -- 完全解耦实践方案

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原文链接: blog.csdn.net

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源码地址

目前,Android 组件化普遍使用于移动开发,但是组件化的初衷是为了解耦代码,并行开发效率;小型app似乎会care不到,完全解耦的组件化会在app越来越臃肿的时候带来很大的提升;

1.组件化介绍

ok,那么我们需要知道完全解耦的组件化框架应该注意哪些点:

  1. 主app只加载业务组件,不可调用组件;组件与组件之间不存在调用关系;这样无论是主app和业务组件都是完全独立,完全解耦的;
  2. 主app和组件都依赖common组件,通过common的注册和分发实现组件之间的交互,这个common我们姑且叫做业务主线
  3. android中page使用common下层接口和路由进行实现(在本框架中,ARouter实现Activity跳转,ARouter-Interceptor实现Activity跳转的拦截;Fragment通过common下沉注册分发实现Fragment的填充)
  4. 每一个组件应当是一个app可单独编译:Library和Application之间转化使用gradle配置相应的Manifest和applicationId

component.jpg

2.单独编译组件化配置(gradle)

zhujianmulu.png
依赖关系

  • App 依赖common
  • Home/Login/News 依赖common
  • common 依赖component-base

2.1. 首先在整个工程的gradle.properties中配置组件 Library/Application切换的开关:

isRunLogin = false  //login组件
isRunHome = false //home组件
isRunNews = false  //news组件
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2.2. 由于android中Library(组件)/Application切换时的差异,需要单独配置主见
以home组件为例:
首先开build.gradle:

//注释1: 配置切换application/Library的打包
if (isRunHome.toBoolean()){
    apply plugin: 'com.android.application'
}else{
    apply plugin: 'com.android.library'
}

android {
    .......

    sourceSets {
       //注释2: Library/Application切换  AndroidManifest  
        main {
            if (isRunLogin.toBoolean()){
                manifest.srcFile 'src/main/AndroidManifest.xml'
            }else{
                manifest.srcFile 'src/main/manifest/AndroidManifest.xml'
            }
        }
    }

    ......

}
......

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  • 注释1: 切换application/Libaray的打包配置
  • 注释2: Application为单独编译,需要有applicationId,并且主Activity需要配置main属性;
    Libaray为集成编译,组件不能有applicationId,且不可以设置启动的main Activity
    下面看集成编译(Library)和单独编译(Application)的Manifest配置:
    1.png
//集成编译,打包为Library
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<manifest xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"
    package="component.android.com.home">

    <application android:theme="@style/home_AppTheme">
        <activity android:name=".view.activity.HomeActivity"/>
    </application>

</manifest>

//单独编译,打包为单独Application 可单独编译
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<manifest xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"
    package="component.android.com.home">

    <application
        android:allowBackup="true"
        android:icon="@mipmap/ic_launcher"
        android:label="@string/app_name"
        android:name=".global.HomeApp"
        android:roundIcon="@mipmap/ic_launcher_round"
        android:supportsRtl="true"
        android:theme="@style/home_AppTheme">
        <activity android:name=".view.activity.HomeActivity">
            <intent-filter>
                <action android:name="android.intent.action.MAIN" />

                <category android:name="android.intent.category.LAUNCHER" />
            </intent-filter>
        </activity>
    </application>

</manifest>


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3.组件之间activity跳转(Actiivity跳转)

3.1. 组件之间的activity跳转,这里使用ARouter

ARouter是阿里开源的一种页面跳转task

首先看ARouter在build.gralde的配置:

//主app build.gradle
......
dependencies {
    ......
    androidTestImplementation 'com.android.support.test:runner:1.0.2'
    androidTestImplementation 'com.android.support.test.espresso:espresso-core:3.0.2'
 
}
//home/login/news 组件  build.gradle
dependencies {
    ........
    annotationProcessor 'com.alibaba:arouter-compiler:1.1.4'
}

//common build.gradle

dependencies {
    ......
    api 'com.alibaba:arouter-api:1.3.1'
    // arouter-compiler 的注解依赖需要所有使用 ARouter 的 module 都添加依赖
    annotationProcessor 'com.alibaba:arouter-compiler:1.1.4'
}


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3.2 在app和各组件中进行page跳转

  • 首先是ARouter的初始化

public class MainApplication extends BaseApp {

    @Override
    public void onCreate() {
        super.onCreate();
        //在主app中初始化ARouter
        initRouter();
        initMoudleApp(this);
        initMoudleData(this);
    }

    private void initRouter() {
        if (BuildConfig.DEBUG){
            //打印日志
            ARouter.openLog();
            ARouter.openDebug();
        }
        ARouter.init(this);
    }
    @Override
    public void initMoudleApp(Application application) {
        for (String moduleApp : AppConfig.moduleApps) {
            try {
                Class clazz = Class.forName(moduleApp);
                BaseApp baseApp = (BaseApp) clazz.newInstance();
                baseApp.initMoudleApp(this);
            } catch (ClassNotFoundException e) {
                e.printStackTrace();
            } catch (IllegalAccessException e) {
                e.printStackTrace();
            } catch (InstantiationException e) {
                e.printStackTrace();
            }
        }
    }

    @Override
    public void initMoudleData(Application application) {
        for (String moduleApp : AppConfig.moduleApps) {
            try {
                Class clazz = Class.forName(moduleApp);
                BaseApp baseApp = (BaseApp) clazz.newInstance();
                baseApp.initMoudleData(this);
            } catch (ClassNotFoundException e) {
                e.printStackTrace();
            } catch (IllegalAccessException e) {
                e.printStackTrace();
            } catch (InstantiationException e) {
                e.printStackTrace();
            }
        }
    }
}



//组件中  home--HomeApplication
public class HomeApp extends BaseApp {


    @Override
    public void initMoudleApp(Application application) {
        if (BuildConfig.DEBUG){
            //打印日志
            ARouter.openLog();
            ARouter.openDebug();
        }
        ARouter.init(this);
    }

    @Override
    public void initMoudleData(Application application) {

    }
}

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这里需要注意一下 当集成编译时候 ,组件仅仅是一个组件,不会单独具备Applicagtion入口,所以需要在主app的MainApplication中利用反射的方式 initMoudleData/initMoudleData进行ARouter等初始化的配置; 下面看ARouter的跳转实例:

//app/MainActivity
....
private void initClick() {
        findViewById(R.id.btn_nav_home).setOnClickListener(new View.OnClickListener() {
            @Override
            public void onClick(View v) {
                ARouter.getInstance().build("/home/homeActivity").navigation()
          }
}
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在app中实现跳转,但是这个 path/home/homeActivity需要在home组件目标位置添加注解才能实现activity的跳转:

@Route(path = "/myhome/homeActivity")
public class HomeActivity extends AppCompatActivity {

    @Override
    protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
        super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
        setContentView(R.layout.activity_home);
    }
}
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这样 就成功实现类组件之间的activity的跳转;

4.组件之间的逻辑交互

App点击跳转home,须判断登录逻辑:

  • 1.登录则跳转home组件的homeActivity
  • 2.未登录则跳转login组件的loginActivity,点击登录,再重复以上逻辑
    这样 主app,home和login就实现了一个简单的交互逻辑
    2.png
    首先开component:
//ILoginService
public interface ILoginService {
    boolean getLoginStatus();
    int getLoginUserId();
}
//DefultLoginService
public class DefultLoginService implements ILoginService {
    @Override
    public boolean getLoginStatus() {
        return false;
    }
    @Override
    public int getLoginUserId() {
        return 0;
    }
}
//ComponentServiceFactory
public class ComponentServiceFactory {

    ......

    public static ComponentServiceFactory getInstance(Context context){
        if (instance == null){
            synchronized (ComponentServiceFactory.class){
                if (instance == null){
                    instance = new ComponentServiceFactory();
                }
            }
        }
        return instance;
    }


    private ILoginService loginService;

    public void setLoginService(ILoginService iloginService){
        loginService = iloginService;
    }


    public ILoginService getLoginService(){
        if (loginService == null){
            loginService = new DefultLoginService();
        }
        return loginService;
    }

}


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然后在login中通过common的ComponentServiceFactory注册对应的loginService

//LoginService
public class LoginService implements ILoginService {
    @Override
    public boolean getLoginStatus() {
        return AccountUtils.getInstance().isAccountStatus();
    }

    @Override
    public int getLoginUserId() {
        return 0;
    }
}

//Login组件LoginApp注册service
........
public class LoginApp extends BaseApp {

    @Override
    public void initMoudleApp(Application application) {
        Log.i("LoginApp","initMoudleApp");
        if (BuildConfig.DEBUG){
            //打印日志
            ARouter.openLog();
            ARouter.openDebug();
        }
        ARouter.init(this);
        ComponentServiceFactory.getInstance(this).setLoginService(new LoginService());
    }

    @Override
    public void initMoudleData(Application application) {

    }
}

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在App-MainActivity中跳转homeActivity,在home组件中使用ARouter的拦截器:

//app-mainActivity
private void initClick() {
        findViewById(R.id.btn_nav_home).setOnClickListener(new View.OnClickListener() {
            @Override
            public void onClick(View v) {
                ARouter.getInstance().build("/home/homeActivity").navigation(MainActivity.this, new NavCallback() {
                    //ARouter拦截器的监听
                    @Override
                    public void onArrival(Postcard postcard) {
                        LogUtils.LogI("loginInterceptor","done");
                    }

                    @Override
                    public void onFound(Postcard postcard) {
                        //super.onFound(postcard);
                        LogUtils.LogI("loginInterceptor","found");
                    }

                    @Override
                    public void onLost(Postcard postcard) {
                        //super.onLost(postcard);
                        LogUtils.LogI("loginInterceptor","lost");
                    }

                    @Override
                    public void onInterrupt(Postcard postcard) {
                        //super.onInterrupt(postcard);
                        LogUtils.LogI("loginInterceptor","interrupt");
                    }
                });
            }
        });
    }


//home-HomeInterceptor
@Interceptor(priority = 1,name = "homeInterceptor")
public class HomeInterceptor implements IInterceptor {
    private Context context;

    @Override
    public void process(Postcard postcard, InterceptorCallback callback) {
        switch (postcard.getPath()){
            case "/myhome/homeActivity":
                //通过component进行逻辑交互
                if (ComponentServiceFactory.getInstance(context).getLoginService().getLoginStatus()){
                    callback.onContinue(postcard);
                }else {
                    ARouter.getInstance().build("/login/loginActivity").navigation();
                    //callback.onInterrupt(new RuntimeException("请登录"));
                    //callback.onContinue(postcard);
                }
                break;
            default:
                callback.onContinue(postcard);
                break;

        }
    }

    @Override
    public void init(Context context) {
        this.context = context;
    }
}

//login-loginInterceptor
@Interceptor(priority = 2,name = "loginInterceptor")
public class LoginInterceptor implements IInterceptor {
    private Context context;

    @Override
    public void process(Postcard postcard, InterceptorCallback callback) {
        switch (postcard.getPath()){
            case "/login/loginActivity":
                LogUtils.LogI("loginInterceptor","请点击登录按钮");
                callback.onContinue(postcard);
                break;
            default:
                callback.onContinue(postcard);
            //在每一个组件中添加一个navi的拦截器  逻辑在

        }
    }

    @Override
    public void init(Context context) {
        this.context = context;
    }
}
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  • 1.在跳转homeActivity时,跳转到home组件的homeInterceptor拦截器
  • 2.在homeInterceptor中通过component获取login注册的lohginservice来获取登录状态,实现下一步跳转

可以看到 app 通过ARouter跳home home通过component的注册分发,判断登录逻辑 进行下一步跳转;这样就实现了不依赖其他组件的逻辑交互

5.组件化fragment解耦

在android中我们使用最多的就是fragment,一般情况下 我们会实例化fragment再进行下一步逻辑;为了解耦我们在component中注册fragment接口,在相应组件中注册fragmentservice,在其他组件中实现分发:

//component-LoginFragmentService
public class LoginFragmentService implements IFragmentService {


    @Override
    public Fragment getFragment(String tag) {
        return new LginHomeFragment();
    }

    @Override
    public void newFragment(Activity activity, int resId, FragmentManager fragmentManager, Bundle bundle, String tag) {
        FragmentTransaction transaction = fragmentManager.beginTransaction();
        transaction.add(resId,new LginHomeFragment(),tag);
        transaction.commit();
    }
}

//component-ComponentServiceFactory
public class ComponentServiceFactory {

    private static volatile ComponentServiceFactory instance;
    private IFragmentService newsFragmentService;
    private IFragmentService homeFragmentService;
    private IFragmentService loginFragmentService;

    public static ComponentServiceFactory getInstance(Context context){
        if (instance == null){
            synchronized (ComponentServiceFactory.class){
                if (instance == null){
                    instance = new ComponentServiceFactory();
                }
            }
        }
        return instance;
    }

........
    //主册fragmentservice入口
    public void setHomeFragmentService(IFragmentService iFragmentService){
        homeFragmentService = iFragmentService;
    }

    public void setLoginFragmentService(IFragmentService iFragmentService){
        loginFragmentService = iFragmentService;
    }

    public void setNewsFragmentService(IFragmentService iFragmentService){
        newsFragmentService = iFragmentService;
    }

    public IFragmentService getNewsFragmentService() {
        return newsFragmentService;
    }

    public IFragmentService getHomeFragmentService() {
        return homeFragmentService;
    }

    public IFragmentService getLoginFragmentService() {
        return loginFragmentService;
    }
}


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在home组件中进行fragmentservice的注册工作:

//home-HomeApp
public class HomeApp extends BaseApp {


    @Override
    public void initMoudleApp(Application application) {
        if (BuildConfig.DEBUG){
            //打印日志
            ARouter.openLog();
            ARouter.openDebug();
        }
        ARouter.init(this);
        ComponentServiceFactory.getInstance(this).setHomeFragmentService(new HomeFragmentService());
    }

    @Override
    public void initMoudleData(Application application) {

    }
}
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在App中调用:

app-MainActivity:
 private void initBaseView() {
        FragmentManager supportFragmentManager = getSupportFragmentManager();
        ComponentServiceFactory.getInstance(this)
                .getHomeFragmentService().newFragment(this,R.id.content,supportFragmentManager,null,null);

    }
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这样一个home组件中的homeFragment就加载到主app的xml中
同理组件之间的fragment引用亦如此
注意框架中component-IFragmentService实现了两个方法:

//获取目标的fragment来进行操作
    Fragment getFragment(String tag);

    //用于固定的区域来填充相应fragment
    void newFragment(Activity activity, int resId, FragmentManager fragmentManager, Bundle bundle, String tag);
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  • getFragment(String tag);为获取目标fragment接口,获取到实例之后开发者自己实现fragment相关逻辑
  • newFragment(...);适用于在布局中静态添加fragment,一步到位

当然框架中还有部分限制组件资源的gradle配置,有兴趣可以在github下载demo
源码地址
简书地址

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