反射基础之Enum

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原文链接: www.codemore.top
检查枚举

检查枚举主要由三个API:

  • Class.isEnum(): 判断类是否是一个枚举
  • Class.getEnumConstants(): 根据枚举中的声明顺序获取枚举常量
  • java.lang.reflect.Field.isEnumConstant() 判断字段是否是枚举

示例如下:

import java.util.Arrays;
import static java.lang.System.out;

enum Eon { HADEAN, ARCHAEAN, PROTEROZOIC, PHANEROZOIC }

public class EnumConstants {
    public static void main(String... args) {
	try {
	    Class<?> c = (args.length == 0 ? Eon.class : Class.forName(args[0]));
	    out.format("Enum name:  %s%nEnum constants:  %s%n",
		       c.getName(), Arrays.asList(c.getEnumConstants()));
	    if (c == Eon.class)
		out.format("  Eon.values():  %s%n",
			   Arrays.asList(Eon.values()));

        // production code should handle this exception more gracefully
	} catch (ClassNotFoundException x) {
	    x.printStackTrace();
	}
    }
}复制代码

运行结果:

$ java EnumConstants java.lang.annotation.RetentionPolicy
Enum name:  java.lang.annotation.RetentionPolicy
Enum constants:  [SOURCE, CLASS, RUNTIME]
$ java EnumConstants java.util.concurrent.TimeUnit
Enum name:  java.util.concurrent.TimeUnit
Enum constants:  [NANOSECONDS, MICROSECONDS, 
                  MILLISECONDS, SECONDS, 
                  MINUTES, HOURS, DAYS]复制代码

因为枚举也是一个类,所以也可以通过Field,Method,Constructor的反射API获取其他信息:

import java.lang.reflect.Constructor;
import java.lang.reflect.Field;
import java.lang.reflect.Method;
import java.lang.reflect.Member;
import java.util.List;
import java.util.ArrayList;
import static java.lang.System.out;

public class EnumSpy {
    private static final String fmt = "  %11s:  %s %s%n";

    public static void main(String... args) {
	try {
	    Class<?> c = Class.forName(args[0]);
	    if (!c.isEnum()) {
		out.format("%s is not an enum type%n", c);
		return;
	    }
	    out.format("Class:  %s%n", c);

	    Field[] flds = c.getDeclaredFields();
	    List<Field> cst = new ArrayList<Field>();  // enum constants
	    List<Field> mbr = new ArrayList<Field>();  // member fields
	    for (Field f : flds) {
		if (f.isEnumConstant())
		    cst.add(f);
		else
		    mbr.add(f);
	    }
	    if (!cst.isEmpty())
		print(cst, "Constant");
	    if (!mbr.isEmpty())
		print(mbr, "Field");

	    Constructor[] ctors = c.getDeclaredConstructors();
	    for (Constructor ctor : ctors) {
		out.format(fmt, "Constructor", ctor.toGenericString(),
			   synthetic(ctor));
	    }

	    Method[] mths = c.getDeclaredMethods();
	    for (Method m : mths) {
		out.format(fmt, "Method", m.toGenericString(),
			   synthetic(m));
	    }

        // production code should handle this exception more gracefully
	} catch (ClassNotFoundException x) {
	    x.printStackTrace();
	}
    }

    private static void print(List<Field> lst, String s) {
	for (Field f : lst) {
 	    out.format(fmt, s, f.toGenericString(), synthetic(f));
	}
    }

    private static String synthetic(Member m) {
	return (m.isSynthetic() ? "[ synthetic ]" : "");
    }
}复制代码

运行结果:

$ java EnumSpy java.lang.annotation.RetentionPolicy
Class:  class java.lang.annotation.RetentionPolicy
     Constant:  public static final java.lang.annotation.RetentionPolicy
                  java.lang.annotation.RetentionPolicy.SOURCE 
     Constant:  public static final java.lang.annotation.RetentionPolicy
                  java.lang.annotation.RetentionPolicy.CLASS 
     Constant:  public static final java.lang.annotation.RetentionPolicy 
                  java.lang.annotation.RetentionPolicy.RUNTIME 
        Field:  private static final java.lang.annotation.RetentionPolicy[] 
                  java.lang.annotation.RetentionPolicy. [ synthetic ]
  Constructor:  private java.lang.annotation.RetentionPolicy() 
       Method:  public static java.lang.annotation.RetentionPolicy[]
                  java.lang.annotation.RetentionPolicy.values() 
       Method:  public static java.lang.annotation.RetentionPolicy
                  java.lang.annotation.RetentionPolicy.valueOf(java.lang.String) 复制代码
根据枚举类型设置字段

示例:

Consider application which needs to dynamically modify the trace level in a server application which normally does not allow this change during runtime. Assume the instance of the server object is available. The SetTrace example shows how code can translate the String representation of an enum into an enum type and retrieve and set the value of a field storing an enum.
import java.lang.reflect.Field;
import static java.lang.System.out;

enum TraceLevel { OFF, LOW, MEDIUM, HIGH, DEBUG }

class MyServer {
    private TraceLevel level = TraceLevel.OFF;
}

public class SetTrace {
    public static void main(String... args) {
	TraceLevel newLevel = TraceLevel.valueOf(args[0]);

	try {
	    MyServer svr = new MyServer();
	    Class<?> c = svr.getClass();
	    Field f = c.getDeclaredField("level");
	    f.setAccessible(true);
	    TraceLevel oldLevel = (TraceLevel)f.get(svr);
	    out.format("Original trace level:  %s%n", oldLevel);

	    if (oldLevel != newLevel) {
 		f.set(svr, newLevel);
		out.format("    New  trace level:  %s%n", f.get(svr));
	    }

        // production code should handle these exceptions more gracefully
	} catch (IllegalArgumentException x) {
	    x.printStackTrace();
	} catch (IllegalAccessException x) {
	    x.printStackTrace();
	} catch (NoSuchFieldException x) {
	    x.printStackTrace();
	}
    }
}复制代码

运行结果:

$ java SetTrace OFF
Original trace level:  OFF
$ java SetTrace DEBUG
Original trace level:  OFF
    New  trace level:  DEBUG复制代码
问题排查
尝试初始化枚举类型或者对字段设置一个不兼容的枚举类型时抛出 IllegalArgumentException

示例:尝试初始化一个枚举类型

IllegalArgumentException When Attempting to Instantiate an Enum Type
As has been mentioned, instantiation of enum types is forbidden. The EnumTrouble example attempts this.
import java.lang.reflect.Constructor;
import java.lang.reflect.InvocationTargetException;
import static java.lang.System.out;

enum Charge {
    POSITIVE, NEGATIVE, NEUTRAL;
    Charge() {
	out.format("under construction%n");
    }
}

public class EnumTrouble {

    public static void main(String... args) {
	try {
	    Class<?> c = Charge.class;

 	    Constructor[] ctors = c.getDeclaredConstructors();
 	    for (Constructor ctor : ctors) {
		out.format("Constructor: %s%n",  ctor.toGenericString());
 		ctor.setAccessible(true);
 		ctor.newInstance();
 	    }

        // production code should handle these exceptions more gracefully
	} catch (InstantiationException x) {
	    x.printStackTrace();
	} catch (IllegalAccessException x) {
	    x.printStackTrace();
	} catch (InvocationTargetException x) {
	    x.printStackTrace();
	}
    }
}复制代码

运行结果:

$ java EnumTrouble
Constructor: private Charge()
Exception in thread "main" java.lang.IllegalArgumentException: Cannot
  reflectively create enum objects
        at java.lang.reflect.Constructor.newInstance(Constructor.java:511)
        at EnumTrouble.main(EnumTrouble.java:22)复制代码

示例:设置不兼容的枚举类型

import java.lang.reflect.Field;

enum E0 { A, B }
enum E1 { A, B }

class ETest {
    private E0 fld = E0.A;
}

public class EnumTroubleToo {
    public static void main(String... args) {
	try {
	    ETest test = new ETest();
	    Field f = test.getClass().getDeclaredField("fld");
	    f.setAccessible(true);
 	    f.set(test, E1.A);  // IllegalArgumentException

        // production code should handle these exceptions more gracefully
	} catch (NoSuchFieldException x) {
	    x.printStackTrace();
	} catch (IllegalAccessException x) {
	    x.printStackTrace();
	}
    }
}复制代码

运行:

$ java EnumTroubleToo
Exception in thread "main" java.lang.IllegalArgumentException: Can not set E0
  field ETest.fld to E1
        at sun.reflect.UnsafeFieldAccessorImpl.throwSetIllegalArgumentException
          (UnsafeFieldAccessorImpl.java:146)
        at sun.reflect.UnsafeFieldAccessorImpl.throwSetIllegalArgumentException
          (UnsafeFieldAccessorImpl.java:150)
        at sun.reflect.UnsafeObjectFieldAccessorImpl.set
          (UnsafeObjectFieldAccessorImpl.java:63)
        at java.lang.reflect.Field.set(Field.java:657)
        at EnumTroubleToo.main(EnumTroubleToo.java:16)复制代码

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