Appium Desired Capabilities 参数大全

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Appium Desired Capabilities

Desired Capabilities are keys and values encoded in a JSON object, sent by Appium clients to the server when a new automation session is requested. They tell the Appium drivers all kinds of important things about how you want your test to work. Each Appium client builds capabilities in a way specific to the client's language, but at the end of the day, they are sent over to Appium as JSON objects.

Desired Capabilities can be scripted in the WebDriver test or set within the Appium Server GUI (via an Inspector Session)

Some important capabilities are demonstrated in the following example:

{
    "platformName": "iOS",
    "platformVersion": "11.0",
    "deviceName": "iPhone 7",
    "automationName": "XCUITest",
    "app": "/path/to/my.app"
}
复制代码

This set of Desired Capabilities expresses the desire for Appium to begin an automation session on an iPhone 7 simulator with iOS 11, using the XCUITest Driver, with /path/to/my.app as the app under test.

There are many, many Capabilities that Appium supports. Capabilities also differ by driver, though there are a standard set that most drivers pay attention to. What follows are a series of tables outlining the various Desired Capabilities available in general and for specific drivers.

General Capabilities

These Capabilities span multiple drivers.

CapabilityDescriptionValues
automationNameWhich automation engine to useAppium (default), or UiAutomator2, Espresso, or UiAutomator1 for Android, or XCUITest or Instruments for iOS, or YouiEngine for application built with You.i Engine
platformNameWhich mobile OS platform to useiOS, Android, or FirefoxOS
platformVersionMobile OS versione.g., 7.1, 4.4
deviceNameThe kind of mobile device or emulator to useiPhone Simulator, iPad Simulator, iPhone Retina 4-inch, Android Emulator, Galaxy S4, etc.... On iOS, this should be one of the valid devices returned by instruments with instruments -s devices or xctrace with xcrun xctrace list devices (since Xcode 12). On Android this capability is currently ignored, though it remains required.
appThe absolute local path or remote http URL to a .ipa file (IOS), .app folder (IOS Simulator), .apk file (Android) or .apks file (Android App Bundle), or a .zip file containing one of these. Appium will attempt to install this app binary on the appropriate device first. Note that this capability is not required for Android if you specify appPackage and appActivity capabilities (see below). UiAutomator2 and XCUITest allow to start the session without app or appPackage. Incompatible with browserName. See here about .apks file./abs/path/to/my.apk or http://myapp.com/app.ipa
otherAppsApp or list of apps (as a JSON array) to install prior to running tests. Note that it will not work with automationName of Espresso and iOS real devicese.g., "/path/to/app.apk", https://www.example.com/url/to/app.apk, ["http://appium.github.io/appium/assets/TestApp9.4.app.zip", "/path/to/app-b.app"]
browserNameName of mobile web browser to automate. Should be an empty string if automating an app instead.'Safari' for iOS and 'Chrome', 'Chromium', or 'Browser' for Android
newCommandTimeoutHow long (in seconds) Appium will wait for a new command from the client before assuming the client quit and ending the sessione.g. 60
languageLanguage to set for iOS (XCUITest driver only) and Android.e.g. fr
localeLocale to set for iOS (XCUITest driver only) and Android. fr_CA format for iOS. CA format (country name abbreviation) for Androide.g. fr_CA, CA
udidUnique device identifier of the connected physical devicee.g. 1ae203187fc012g
orientation(Sim/Emu-only) start in a certain orientationLANDSCAPE or PORTRAIT
autoWebviewMove directly into Webview context. Default falsetrue, false
noResetDon't reset app state before this session. See here for more detailstrue, false
fullResetPerform a complete reset. See here for more detailstrue, false
eventTimingsEnable or disable the reporting of the timings for various Appium-internal events (e.g., the start and end of each command, etc.). Defaults to false. To enable, use true. The timings are then reported as events property on response to querying the current session. See the event timing docs for the the structure of this response.e.g., true
enablePerformanceLogging(Web and webview only) Enable Chromedriver's (on Android) or Safari's (on iOS) performance logging (default false)true, false
printPageSourceOnFindFailureWhen a find operation fails, print the current page source. Defaults to false.e.g., true
clearSystemFilesDelete any generated files at the end of a session. Default to false.true, false

Update settings

CapabilityDescriptionValues
settings[settingsKey]Update Appium Settings on session creation.e.g., 'settings[mjpegScalingFactor]': 10, 'settings[shouldUseCompactResponses]': true

Android Only

These Capabilities are available only on Android-based drivers.

CapabilityDescriptionValues
appActivityActivity name for the Android activity you want to launch from your package. This often needs to be preceded by a . (e.g., .MainActivity instead of MainActivity). By default this capability is received from the package manifest (action: android.intent.action.MAIN , category: android.intent.category.LAUNCHER)MainActivity, .Settings
appPackageJava package of the Android app you want to run. By default this capability is received from the package manifest (@package attribute value)com.example.android.myApp, com.android.settings
appWaitActivityActivity name/names, comma separated, for the Android activity you want to wait for. By default the value of this capability is the same as for appActivity. You must set it to the very first focused application activity name in case it is different from the one which is set as appActivity if your capability has appActivity and appPackage. You can also use wildcards (*).SplashActivity, SplashActivity,OtherActivity, *, *.SplashActivity
appWaitPackageJava package of the Android app you want to wait for. By default the value of this capability is the same as for appActivitycom.example.android.myApp, com.android.settings
appWaitDurationTimeout in milliseconds used to wait for the appWaitActivity to launch (default 20000)30000
deviceReadyTimeoutTimeout in seconds while waiting for device to become ready5
allowTestPackagesAllow to install a test package which has android:testOnly="true" in the manifest. false by defaulttrue or false
androidCoverageFully qualified instrumentation class. Passed to -w in adb shell am instrument -e coverage true -wcom.my.Pkg/com.my.Pkg.instrumentation.MyInstrumentation
androidCoverageEndIntentA broadcast action implemented by yourself which is used to dump coverage into file system. Passed to -a in adb shell am broadcast -acom.example.pkg.END_EMMA
androidDeviceReadyTimeoutTimeout in seconds used to wait for a device to become ready after bootinge.g., 30
androidInstallTimeoutTimeout in milliseconds used to wait for an apk to install to the device. Defaults to 90000e.g., 90000
androidInstallPathThe name of the directory on the device in which the apk will be push before install. Defaults to /data/local/tmpe.g. /sdcard/Downloads/
adbPortPort used to connect to the ADB server (default 5037)5037
systemPortsystemPort used to connect to appium-uiautomator2-server or appium-espresso-driver. The default is 8200 in general and selects one port from 8200 to 8299 for appium-uiautomator2-server, it is 8300 from 8300 to 8399 for appium-espresso-driver. When you run tests in parallel, you must adjust the port to avoid conflicts. Read Parallel Testing Setup Guide for more details.e.g., 8201
remoteAdbHostOptional remote ADB server hoste.g.: 192.168.0.101
androidDeviceSocketDevtools socket name. Needed only when tested app is a Chromium embedding browser. The socket is open by the browser and Chromedriver connects to it as a devtools client.e.g., chrome_devtools_remote
avdName of avd to launche.g., api19
avdLaunchTimeoutHow long to wait in milliseconds for an avd to launch and connect to ADB (default 60000)300000
avdReadyTimeoutHow long to wait in milliseconds for an avd to finish its boot animations (default 120000)300000
avdArgsAdditional emulator arguments used when launching an avde.g., -netfast
useKeystoreUse a custom keystore to sign apks, default falsetrue or false
keystorePathPath to custom keystore, default ~/.android/debug.keystoree.g., /path/to.keystore
keystorePasswordPassword for custom keystoree.g., foo
keyAliasAlias for keye.g., androiddebugkey
keyPasswordPassword for keye.g., foo
chromedriverExecutableThe absolute local path to webdriver executable (if Chromium embedder provides its own webdriver, it should be used instead of original chromedriver bundled with Appium)/abs/path/to/webdriver
chromedriverArgsAn array of arguments to be passed to the chromedriver binary when it's run by Appium. By default no CLI args are added beyond what Appium uses internally (such as --url-base, --port, --adb-port, and --log-path.e.g., ["--disable-gpu", "--disable-web-security"]
chromedriverExecutableDirThe absolute path to a directory to look for Chromedriver executables in, for automatic discovery of compatible Chromedrivers. Ignored if chromedriverUseSystemExecutable is true/abs/path/to/chromedriver/directory
chromedriverChromeMappingFileThe absolute path to a file which maps Chromedriver versions to the minimum Chrome that it supports. Ignored if chromedriverUseSystemExecutable is true/abs/path/to/mapping.json
chromedriverUseSystemExecutableIf true, bypasses automatic Chromedriver configuration and uses the version that comes downloaded with Appium. Ignored if chromedriverExecutable is set. Defaults to falsee.g., true
autoWebviewTimeoutAmount of time to wait for Webview context to become active, in ms. Defaults to 2000e.g. 4
chromedriverPortNumeric port to start Chromedriver on. Note that use of this capability is discouraged as it will cause undefined behavior in case there are multiple webviews present. By default Appium will find a free port.e.g. 8000
chromedriverPortsA list of valid ports for Appium to use for communication with Chromedrivers. This capability supports multiple webview scenarios. The form of this capability is an array of numeric ports, where array items can themselves be arrays of length 2, where the first element is the start of an inclusive range and the second is the end. By default, Appium will use any free port.e.g. [8000, [9000, 9005]]
ensureWebviewsHavePagesWhether or not Appium should augment its webview detection with page detection, guaranteeing that any webview contexts which show up in the context list have active pages. This can prevent an error if a context is selected where Chromedriver cannot find any pages. Defaults to falsee.g. true
webviewDevtoolsPortTo support the ensureWebviewsHavePages feature, it is necessary to open a TCP port for communication with the webview on the device under test. This capability allows overriding of the default port of 9222, in case multiple sessions are running simultaneously (to avoid port clash), or in case the default port is not appropriate for your system.e.g. 9543
enableWebviewDetailsCollectionEnables collection of detailed WebView information via /json/version CDP (Chrome Developer Protocol) endpoint since Appium 1.18.0+. This helps to properly match Chromedriver version which supports the given WebView. Without this flag enabled, Appium tries to guess the version of the WebView based on the version of the corresponding installed package (which usually fails for custom web views). Defaults to falsetrue or false
dontStopAppOnResetDoesn't stop the process of the app under test, before starting the app using adb. If the app under test is created by another anchor app, setting this false, allows the process of the anchor app to be still alive, during the start of the test app using adb. In other words, with dontStopAppOnReset set to true, we will not include the -S flag in the adb shell am start call. With this capability omitted or set to false, we include the -S flag. Default falsetrue or false
unicodeKeyboardEnable Unicode input, default falsetrue or false
resetKeyboardReset keyboard to its original state, after running Unicode tests with unicodeKeyboard capability. Ignored if used alone. Default falsetrue or false
noSignSkip checking and signing of app with debug keys, will work only with UiAutomator, default falsetrue or false
ignoreUnimportantViewsCalls the setCompressedLayoutHierarchy() uiautomator function. This capability can speed up test execution, since Accessibility commands will run faster ignoring some elements. The ignored elements will not be findable, which is why this capability has also been implemented as a toggle-able setting as well as a capability. Defaults to falsetrue or false
disableAndroidWatchersDisables android watchers that watch for application not responding and application crash, this will reduce cpu usage on android device/emulator. This capability will work only with UiAutomator, default falsetrue or false
chromeOptionsAllows passing chromeOptions capability for ChromeDriver. For more information see chromeOptionschromeOptions: {args: ['--disable-popup-blocking']}
recreateChromeDriverSessionsKill ChromeDriver session when moving to a non-ChromeDriver webview. Defaults to falsetrue or false
nativeWebScreenshotIn a web context, use native (adb) method for taking a screenshot, rather than proxying to ChromeDriver. Defaults to falsetrue or false
androidScreenshotPathThe name of the directory on the device in which the screenshot will be put. Defaults to /data/local/tmpe.g. /sdcard/screenshots/
autoGrantPermissionsHave Appium automatically determine which permissions your app requires and grant them to the app on install. Defaults to false. If noReset is true, this capability doesn't work.true or false
networkSpeedSet the network speed emulation. Specify the maximum network upload and download speeds. Defaults to full['full','gsm', 'edge', 'hscsd', 'gprs', 'umts', 'hsdpa', 'lte', 'evdo'] Check -netspeed option more info about speed emulation for avds
gpsEnabledToggle gps location provider for emulators before starting the session. By default the emulator will have this option enabled or not according to how it has been provisioned.true or false
isHeadlessSet this capability to true to run the Emulator headless when device display is not needed to be visible. false is the default value. isHeadless is also support for iOS, check XCUITest-specific capabilities.e.g., true
adbExecTimeoutTimeout in milliseconds used to wait for adb command execution. Defaults to 20000e.g., 50000
localeScriptSets the locale scripte.g., "Cyrl" (Cyrillic)
skipDeviceInitializationSkip device initialization which includes i.a.: installation and running of Settings app or setting of permissions. Can be used to improve startup performance when the device was already used for automation and it's prepared for the next automation. Defaults to falsetrue or false
chromedriverDisableBuildCheckSets the chromedriver flag --disable-build-check for Chrome webview teststrue or false
skipUnlockSkips unlock during session creation. Defaults to falsetrue or false
unlockTypeUnlock the target device with particular lock pattern instead of just waking up the device with a helper app. It works with unlockKey capability. Defaults to undefined. fingerprint is available only for Android 6.0+ and emulators. Read unlock doc in android driver.['pin', 'password', 'pattern', 'fingerprint']
unlockKeyA key pattern to unlock used by unlockType.e.g., '1111'
autoLaunchInitializing the app under test automatically. Appium does not install/launch the app under test if this is false. Defaults to truetrue or false
skipLogcatCaptureSkips to start capturing logcat. It might improve performance such as network. Log related commands will not work. Defaults to false.true or false
uninstallOtherPackagesA package, list of packages or * to uninstall package/s before installing apks for test. '*' uninstall all of thrid-party packages except for packages which is necessary for Appium to test such as io.appium.settings or io.appium.uiautomator2.server since Appium already contains the logic to manage them.e.g. "io.appium.example", ["io.appium.example1", "io.appium.example2"], '*'
disableWindowAnimationSet device animation scale zero if the value is true. After session is complete, Appium restores the animation scale to it's original value. Defaults to falsetrue, false
remoteAppsCacheLimitSet the maximum number of remote cached apks (default is 10) which are pushed to the device-under-test's local storage. Caching apks remotely speeds up the execution of sequential test cases, when using the same set of apks, by avoiding the need to be push an apk to the remote file system every time a reinstall is needed. Set this capability to 0 to disable caching.e.g. 0, 5, 20
buildToolsVersionSpecify the Android build-tools version to be something different than the default, which is to use the most recent version. It is helpful to use a non-default version if your environment uses alpha/beta build tools.e.g. '28.0.3'
androidNaturalOrientationAllow for correct handling of orientation on landscape-oriented devices. Set to true to basically flip the meaning of PORTRAIT and LANDSCAPE. Defaults to falsetrue, false
enforceAppInstallBy default application installation is skipped if newer or the same version of this app is already present on the device under test. Setting this option to true will enforce Appium to always install the current application build independently of the currently installed version of it. Defaults to false.true , false
ignoreHiddenApiPolicyErrorIgnores Security exception: Permission denial alert and allows to continue the session creation process since Appium 1.18.0+. The error happens when Appium tries to relax hidden API policy, although some devices with a customized firmware deny such requests. Defaults to false.true, false
mockLocationAppSets the package identifier of the app, which is used as a system mock location provider since Appium 1.18.0+. This capability has no effect on emulators. If the value is set to null or an empty string, then Appium will skip the mocked location provider setup procedure. Defaults to Appium Setting package identifier (io.appium.settings).e.g., null, io.appium.settings, example.your.app
logcatFormatSet the output format for logcat messages since Appium 1.18.0. Supported formats are listed in here. Please read logcat#outputFormat for more details about each format. Defaults to threadtime.e.g., process
logcatFilterSpecsSet the output filter rule for logcat messages since Appium 1.18.0. Please read logcat#filteringOutput for more details about the rule. Write and View Logs with Logcat is also helpful.e.g., ['*:W', 'MyActivity:D'] (MyActivity is a tag)
allowDelayAdbWhether enable -delay-adb on emulator startup. Defaults to truetrue, false

UIAutomator 1

These Capabilities are available on UIAutomator 1.

CapabilityDescriptionValues
intentActionIntent action which will be used to start activity (default android.intent.action.MAIN)e.g.android.intent.action.MAIN, android.intent.action.VIEW
intentCategoryIntent category which will be used to start activity (default android.intent.category.LAUNCHER)e.g. android.intent.category.LAUNCHER, android.intent.category.APP_CONTACTS
intentFlagsFlags that will be used to start activity (default 0x10200000)e.g. 0x10200000
optionalIntentArgumentsAdditional intent arguments that will be used to start activity. See Intent argumentse.g. --esn <EXTRA_KEY>, --ez <EXTRA_KEY> <EXTRA_BOOLEAN_VALUE>, etc.

UIAutomator2 Only

Please refer to the documentation on the UIAutomator2 driver repository about its available capabilities.

Espresso Only

Please refer to the documentation on the Espresso driver repository about its available capabilities.

iOS Only

These Capabilities are available only on the XCUITest Driver and the deprecated UIAutomation Driver.

CapabilityDescriptionValues
calendarFormat(Sim-only) Calendar format to set for the iOS Simulatore.g. gregorian
bundleIdBundle ID of the app under test. Useful for starting an app on a real device or for using other caps which require the bundle ID during test startup. To run a test on a real device using the bundle ID, you may omit the 'app' capability, but you must provide 'udid'.e.g. io.appium.TestApp
launchTimeoutAmount of time in ms to wait for instruments before assuming it hung and failing the sessione.g. 20000
locationServicesEnabled(Sim-only) Force location services to be either on or off. Default is to keep current sim setting.true or false
locationServicesAuthorized(Sim-only) Set location services to be authorized or not authorized for app via plist, so that location services alert doesn't pop up. Default is to keep current sim setting. Note that if you use this setting you MUST also use the bundleId capability to send in your app's bundle ID.true or false
autoAcceptAlertsAccept all iOS alerts automatically if they pop up. This includes privacy access permission alerts (e.g., location, contacts, photos). Default is false.true or false
autoDismissAlertsDismiss all iOS alerts automatically if they pop up. This includes privacy access permission alerts (e.g., location, contacts, photos). Default is false.true or false
nativeInstrumentsLibUse native intruments lib (ie disable instruments-without-delay).true or false
nativeWebTapEnable "real", non-javascript-based web taps in Safari. Default: false. Warning: depending on viewport size/ratio; this might not accurately tap an elementtrue or false
safariInitialUrlInitial safari url, default is a local welcome pagee.g. https://www.github.com
safariAllowPopups(Sim-only) Allow javascript to open new windows in Safari. Default keeps current sim settingtrue or false
safariIgnoreFraudWarning(Sim-only) Prevent Safari from showing a fraudulent website warning. Default keeps current sim setting.true or false
safariOpenLinksInBackground(Sim-only) Whether Safari should allow links to open in new windows. Default keeps current sim setting.true or false
keepKeyChains(Sim-only) Whether to keep keychains (Library/Keychains) when appium session is started/finishedtrue or false
localizableStringsDirWhere to look for localizable strings. Default en.lprojen.lproj
processArgumentsArguments to pass to the AUT using instrumentse.g., -myflag
interKeyDelayThe delay, in ms, between keystrokes sent to an element when typing.e.g., 100
showIOSLogWhether to show any logs captured from a device in the appium logs. Default falsetrue or false
sendKeyStrategystrategy to use to type test into a test field. Simulator default: oneByOne. Real device default: groupedoneByOne, grouped or setValue
screenshotWaitTimeoutMax timeout in sec to wait for a screenshot to be generated. default: 10e.g., 5
waitForAppScriptThe ios automation script used to determined if the app has been launched, by default the system wait for the page source not to be empty. The result must be a booleane.g. true;, target.elements().length > 0;, $.delay(5000); true;
webviewConnectRetriesNumber of times to send connection message to remote debugger, to get webview. Default: 8e.g., 12
appNameThe display name of the application under test. Used to automate backgrounding the app in iOS 9+.e.g., UICatalog
customSSLCert(Sim only) Add an SSL certificate to IOS Simulator.e.g.
-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----MIIFWjCCBEKg...
-----END CERTIFICATE-----
webkitResponseTimeout(Real device only) Set the time, in ms, to wait for a response from WebKit in a Safari session. Defaults to 5000e.g., 10000
remoteDebugProxy(Sim only, <= 11.2) If set, Appium sends and receives remote debugging messages through a proxy on either the local port (Sim only, <= 11.2) or a proxy on this unix socket (Sim only >= 11.3) instead of communicating with the iOS remote debugger directly.e.g. 12000 or "/tmp/my.proxy.socket"
enableAsyncExecuteFromHttpscapability to allow simulators to execute asynchronous JavaScript on pages using HTTPS. Defaults to falsetrue or false
skipLogCaptureSkips to start capturing logs such as crash, system, safari console and safari network. It might improve performance such as network. Log related commands will not work. Defaults to false.true or false
webkitDebugProxyPort(Real device only) Port to which ios-webkit-debug-proxy is connected, during real device tests. Default is 27753.12021
fullContextListReturns the detailed information on contexts for the get available context command. If this capability is enabled, then each item in the returned contexts list would additionally include WebView title, full URL and the bundle identifier. Defaults to false.true or false

iOS Only, using XCUITest

Please refer to the documentation on the XCUITest driver repository about its available capabilities.

Safaridriver Only

Please refer to the documentation on the safaridriver repository about its available capabilities.

Geckodriver Only

Please refer to the documentation on the geckodriver repository about its available capabilities.

MacDriver Only

Please refer to the documentation on the MacDriver repository about its available capabilities.

Mac2Driver Only

Please refer to the documentation on the Mac2Driver repository about its available capabilities.

You.i Engine Only

Please refer to the documentation on the You.i Engine driver repository about its available capabilities.

WinAppDriver Only

Please refer to the documentation on the Appium Windows Driver repository about its available capabilities.

Flutter driver only

Please refer to the documentation on the Flutter Driver repository about its available capabilities.

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