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设计模式(二)之策略模式

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策略模式:定义了算法家族,分别封装起来,让其之间可以互相替换,此模式让算法的变化,不会影响到使用算法的客户。

下边使用例子来具体分析:

制作一个商场收银的软件,营业员根据客户购买的单价和数量,向客户收费。并附带打折的选项。效果如下图所示: 在这里插入图片描述

主要部分代码:

using System;
using System.Windows.Forms;
  
namespace strategy
{
    public partial class Form1 : Form
    {
        public Form1()
        {
            InitializeComponent();
        }
  
        private void Form1_Load(object sender, EventArgs e)
        {
            comboBox1.Items.Add("8折");
            comboBox1.Items.Add("6折");
            comboBox1.Items.Add("4折");
        }
  
        /// <summary>
        /// 单价
        /// </summary>
        public double price;
        /// <summary>
        /// 数量
        /// </summary>
        public double number;
        /// <summary>
        /// 总价钱
        /// </summary>
        public double total;
        /// <summary>
        /// 确定按钮点击事件
        /// </summary>
        private void button1_Click(object sender, EventArgs e)
        {
            Console.WriteLine(comboBox1);
            price = Convert.ToDouble(textBox1.Text);
            number = Convert.ToDouble(textBox2.Text);
            switch (comboBox1.SelectedIndex)
            {
                case 0:
                    total = price * number * 0.8;
                    break;
                case 1:
                    total = price * number * 0.6;
                    break;
                case 2:
                    total = price * number * 0.4;
                    break;
                default:
                    total = price * number;
                    break;
            }
            richTextBox1.Text = Convert.ToString(total);
            label5.Text = Convert.ToString(total);
        }
  
        /// <summary>
        /// 重置按钮点击事件
        /// </summary>
        private void button2_Click(object sender, EventArgs e)
        {
            textBox1.Clear();
            textBox2.Clear();
            richTextBox1.Clear();
            label5.Text = "";
        }
    }
}
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这样就可以实现上边所描述的功能。

这个例子我们也可以使用简单工厂模式来实现。刚好也复习一下“简单工厂模式”。

简单工厂模式的精髓就是在基类(abstract,interface ,class)中定义一个方法,由其子类来实现或者重写他。将逻辑计算部分封装成一个工厂类,工厂类只返回对应的子类的对象。再有这个对象调用其下的方法。

Form1.cs:

using System;
using System.Windows.Forms;
  
namespace strategy
{
    public partial class Form1 : Form
    {
        public Form1()
        {
            InitializeComponent();
        }
  
        private void Form1_Load(object sender, EventArgs e)
        {
            comboBox1.Items.Add("8折");
            comboBox1.Items.Add("6折");
            comboBox1.Items.Add("4折");
        }
  
        /// <summary>
        /// 单价
        /// </summary>
        public double price;
        /// <summary>
        /// 数量
        /// </summary>
        public double number;
        /// <summary>
        /// 总价钱
        /// </summary>
        public double total;
        /// <summary>
        /// 确定按钮点击事件
        /// </summary>
        private void button1_Click(object sender, EventArgs e)
        {
            Total tooo = null;
            price = Convert.ToDouble(textBox1.Text);
            number = Convert.ToDouble(textBox2.Text);
            int count = comboBox1.SelectedIndex;
            Reckon reckon = new Reckon();
            tooo = reckon.PutOut(count);
            total = tooo.getResult(price, number);
            richTextBox1.Text = Convert.ToString(total);
            label5.Text = Convert.ToString(total);
        }
  
        /// <summary>
        /// 重置按钮点击事件
        /// </summary>
        private void button2_Click(object sender, EventArgs e)
        {
            textBox1.Clear();
            textBox2.Clear();
            richTextBox1.Clear();
            label5.Text = "";
        }
    }
}
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抽象类:

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using System.Text;
using System.Threading.Tasks;
  
namespace strategy
{
    public abstract class Total
    {
        public abstract double getResult(double price, double number);
    }
}
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工厂类:

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using System.Text;
using System.Threading.Tasks;
using System.Windows.Forms;
  
namespace strategy
{
    /// <summary>
    /// 计算类
    /// </summary>
    public class Reckon
    {
        public Total tooo = null;
        /// <summary>
        /// 总价钱
        /// </summary>
        public double total;
  
        public Total PutOut(int count)
        {
            switch (count)
            {
                case 2:
                    tooo = new Four();
                    break;
                case 1:
                    tooo = new Six() ;
                    break;
                case 0:
                    tooo = new Eight();
                    break;
                default:
                    tooo = new Normal();
                    break;
            }
            return tooo;
        }
    }
}
 
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子类:

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using System.Text;
using System.Threading.Tasks;
  
namespace strategy
{
    public class Four:Total
    {
        public override double getResult(double price, double number)
        {
            double total;
            total = price * number * 0.8;
            return total;
        }
    }
}
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using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using System.Text;
using System.Threading.Tasks;
  
namespace strategy
{
    public class Six:Total
    {
        public override double getResult(double price, double number)
        {
            double total;
            total = price * number * 0.6;
            return total;
        }
    }
}
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using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using System.Text;
using System.Threading.Tasks;
  
namespace strategy
{
    public class Eight:Total
    {
        public override double getResult(double price, double number)
        {
            double total;
            total = price * number * 0.8;
            return total;
        }
    }
}
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using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using System.Text;
using System.Threading.Tasks;
  
namespace strategy
{
    public class Normal:Total
    {
        public override double getResult(double price, double number)
        {
            double total;
            total = price * number;
            return total;
        }
    }
}
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以上是用简单工厂模式来实现的这个例子。

这里介绍的是策略模式,所以使用简单工厂模式实现的不是我们想要的,因为每一次我修改结构,添加新的打折策略都需要修改工厂类和添加新的算法类。

策略模式:定义了算法家族,分别封装起来。让其之间可以互相替换,此模式让算法的变化,不会影响到使用这个算法的用户。

以上是官方给的说法。

策略模式和简单工厂模式区别:

简单工厂模式是直接返回你需要的算法的对象。再使用对象进行操作

策略模式加了一层,调用策略类,传你需要的算法类对象,直接返回你需要的到的数值。

上代码:

Form1.cs

using System;
using System.Windows.Forms;
  
namespace strategy
{
    public partial class Form1 : Form
    {
        public Form1()
        {
            InitializeComponent();
        }
  
        private void Form1_Load(object sender, EventArgs e)
        {
            comboBox1.Items.Add("8折");
            comboBox1.Items.Add("6折");
            comboBox1.Items.Add("4折");
        }
  
        /// <summary>
        /// 单价
        /// </summary>
        public double price;
        /// <summary>
        /// 数量
        /// </summary>
        public double number;
        /// <summary>
        /// 总价钱
        /// </summary>
        public double total;
  
        public CeLue celue;
        /// <summary>
        /// 确定按钮点击事件
        /// </summary>
        private void button1_Click(object sender, EventArgs e)
        {
            Total tooo = null;
            if (textBox1.Text == "")
            {
                return;
            }
            price = Convert.ToDouble(textBox1.Text);
            number = Convert.ToDouble(textBox2.Text);
            int count = comboBox1.SelectedIndex;
            switch (count)
            {
                case 2:
                    celue = new CeLue(new Four(),price,number);
                    break;
                case 1:
                    celue = new CeLue(new Six(),price,number);
                    break;
                case 0:
                    celue = new CeLue(new Eight(), price, number);
                    break;
                default:
                    celue = new CeLue(new Normal(), price, number);
                    break;
            }
            // 调用
            total = celue.getCeLue();
            //Reckon reckon = new Reckon();
            //tooo = reckon.PutOut(count);
            //total = tooo.getResult(price, number);
            richTextBox1.Text = Convert.ToString(total);
            label5.Text = Convert.ToString(total);
        }
  
        /// <summary>
        /// 重置按钮点击事件
        /// </summary>
        private void button2_Click(object sender, EventArgs e)
        {
            textBox1.Clear();
            textBox2.Clear();
            richTextBox1.Clear();
            label5.Text = "";
        }
    }
}
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CeLue.cs

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using System.Text;
using System.Threading.Tasks;
  
namespace strategy
{
    /// <summary>
    /// 策略类
    /// </summary>
    public class CeLue
    {
        public Total total;
        public double pri;
        public double num;
        public double to;
        public CeLue(Total tooo,double price,double number)
        {
            total = tooo;
            pri = price;
            num = number;
        }
  
        public double getCeLue()
        {
            to = total.getResult(pri, num);
            return to;
        }
    }
}
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基类:Total.cs

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using System.Text;
using System.Threading.Tasks;
  
namespace strategy
{
    public abstract class Total
    {
        public abstract double getResult(double price, double number);
  
    }
}
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算法类:

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using System.Text;
using System.Threading.Tasks;
  
namespace strategy
{
    public class Six:Total
    {
        public override double getResult(double price, double number)
        {
            double total;
            total = price * number * 0.6;
            return total;
        }
    }
}
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using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using System.Text;
using System.Threading.Tasks;
  
namespace strategy
{
    public class Four:Total
    {
        public override double getResult(double price, double number)
        {
            double total;
            total = price * number * 0.8;
            return total;
        }
    }
}
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using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using System.Text;
using System.Threading.Tasks;
  
namespace strategy
{
    public class Eight:Total
    {
        public override double getResult(double price, double number)
        {
            double total;
            total = price * number * 0.8;
            return total;
        }
    }
}
复制代码
using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using System.Text;
using System.Threading.Tasks;
  
namespace strategy
{
    public class Normal:Total
    {
        public override double getResult(double price, double number)
        {
            double total;
            total = price * number;
            return total;
        }
    }
}
复制代码

对比一下简单工厂模式和策略模式发现,单纯的使用策略模式,对算法的封装确实更科学了一些。但是在调用的时候,我们又回到了之前的模样,在客户端判断到底是哪一个算法,这个时候,我们可以将策略模式与简单工厂模式结合使用。

将判断算法部分放到策略类的构造函数中。代码如下所示:

Form1.cs

using System;
using System.Windows.Forms;
  
namespace strategy
{
    public partial class Form1 : Form
    {
        public Form1()
        {
            InitializeComponent();
        }
  
        private void Form1_Load(object sender, EventArgs e)
        {
            comboBox1.Items.Add("8折");
            comboBox1.Items.Add("6折");
            comboBox1.Items.Add("4折");
        }
  
        /// <summary>
        /// 单价
        /// </summary>
        public double price;
        /// <summary>
        /// 数量
        /// </summary>
        public double number;
        /// <summary>
        /// 总价钱
        /// </summary>
        public double total;
  
        public CeLue celue;
        /// <summary>
        /// 确定按钮点击事件
        /// </summary>
        private void button1_Click(object sender, EventArgs e)
        {
            Total tooo = null;
            if (textBox1.Text == "")
            {
                return;
            }
            price = Convert.ToDouble(textBox1.Text);
            number = Convert.ToDouble(textBox2.Text);
            int count = comboBox1.SelectedIndex;
            CeLue celue = new CeLue(price, number, count);
            // 调用
            total = celue.getCeLue();
            //Reckon reckon = new Reckon();
            //tooo = reckon.PutOut(count);
            //total = tooo.getResult(price, number);
            richTextBox1.Text = Convert.ToString(total);
            label5.Text = Convert.ToString(total);
        }
  
        /// <summary>
        /// 重置按钮点击事件
        /// </summary>
        private void button2_Click(object sender, EventArgs e)
        {
            textBox1.Clear();
            textBox2.Clear();
            richTextBox1.Clear();
            label5.Text = "";
        }
    }
}
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策略模式和简单工厂模式结合:

CeLue.cs

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using System.Text;
using System.Threading.Tasks;
  
namespace strategy
{
    /// <summary>
    /// 策略类
    /// </summary>
    public class CeLue
    {
        public Total total;
        public double pri;
        public double num;
        public double to;
        public CeLue(double price,double number,int count)
        {
            pri = price;
            num = number;
            switch (count)
            {
                case 2:
                    total = new Four();
                    break;
                case 1:
                    total = new Six();
                    break;
                case 0:
                    total = new Eight();
                    break;
                default:
                    total = new Normal();
                    break;
            }
        }
  
        public double getCeLue()
        {
            to = total.getResult(pri, num);
            return to;
        }
    }
}
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其余代码没有改变。

这个就是策略模式,按照官方的说法就是算法的家族。让算法的变化,不会影响到使用算法的用户。

有好的建议,请在下方输入你的评论 。

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