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python django框架+vue.js前后端分离

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本文用于学习django+vue.js实现web前后端分离协作开发。以一个添加和删除数据库书籍应用为实例。

django框架官方地址:www.djangoproject.com/

vue.js 框架官方地址:cn.vuejs.org/

一、构建django项目

1. 创建工程文件和APP

创建django_vue

django-admin startproject django_vue
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进入django_vue,创建虚拟环境django_vue_env

pip install virtualenv  #安装
virtualenv django_vue_env
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激活虚拟环境,并安装django

source ./django_vue_env/bin/activate
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安装 django、后面用到的django-cors-headers(跨域)、requests

image-20210616220115778

创建django app

python manage.py startapp app
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我们的目录应该是这样的,appfront为vue项目会在后面创建。

image-20210616220759863

数据库我们使用默认sqlite3 即可,如需要变更可在setting.py中databases配置。

image-20210616221036093

添加app到INSTALLED_APPS

INSTALLED_APPS = [
    'django.contrib.admin',
    'django.contrib.auth',
    'django.contrib.contenttypes',
    'django.contrib.sessions',
    'django.contrib.messages',
    'django.contrib.staticfiles',
    'app'
]

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添加数据库模型,包含book_name和add_time用于记录书籍名称和添加时间。

from django.db import models



# Create your models here.
class Book(models.Model):
    book_name = models.CharField(max_length=64)
    add_time = models.DateTimeField(auto_now_add=True)

    def __str__(self):
        return self.book_name

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做数据库迁移

python manage.py makemigrations app
python manage.py migrate
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编写views.py添加 show_books 和add_book两个api接口,通过JsonResponse将请求数据返回。

from django.shortcuts import render

# Create your views here.
# 需要导入相关的模块
from django.http import JsonResponse
from django.views.decorators.http import require_http_methods
from django.core import serializers
import requests
import json

from .models import Book

@require_http_methods(["GET"])
def add_book(request):
    response = {}
    try:
        book = Book(book_name=request.GET.get('book_name'))
        book.save()
        response['msg'] = 'success'
        response['error_num'] = 0
    except  Exception as e:
        response['msg'] = str(e)
        response['error_num'] = 1

    return JsonResponse(response)

@require_http_methods(["GET"])
def show_books(request):
    response = {}
    try:
        books = Book.objects.filter()
        response['list']  = json.loads(serializers.serialize("json", books))
        response['msg'] = 'success'
        response['error_num'] = 0
    except  Exception as e:
        response['msg'] = str(e)
        response['error_num'] = 1

    return JsonResponse(response)

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在django_vue目录下urls.py添加api路由

from django.contrib import admin
from django.urls import path,include
import app.urls

urlpatterns = [
    path('admin/', admin.site.urls),
    path('api/',include(app.urls)),
]
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在app目录下的urls.py添加视图路由

from django.urls import path,re_path
# 导入 myapp 应用的 views 文件
from . import views

urlpatterns = [
    re_path(r'add_book$', views.add_book),
    re_path(r'show_books$', views.show_books)
]

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重启服务,通过curl命令测试api可用性,如下接口正常。

 python manage.py runserver
 
 curl  http://127.0.0.1:8000/api/add_book?book_name=mylife
 
 {"msg": "success", "error_num": 0}
 
 curl  http://127.0.0.1:8000/api/show_books
 
 {"list": [ {"model": "app.book", "pk": 9, "fields": {"book_name": "mylife", "add_time": "2021-06-16T14:44:49.230Z"}}], "msg": "success", "error_num": 0}
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django后端大致构建完成,接下来做vue前端。


一、构建vue项目

安装vue初始化命令行工具vue-cli

npm install -g vue-cli
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在django_vue目录下构建前端工程appfront,其中包含webpack工具。

vue-init webpack appfront
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appfront目录如下

image-20210616231328773

安装渲染element-uivue-resource

npm install element-ui
npm install vue-resource
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调整src/main.js如下

import Vue from 'vue'
import App from './App'
import router from './router'
import ElementUI from 'element-ui'
import VueResource from 'vue-resource'
import 'element-ui/lib/theme-chalk/index.css'

Vue.config.productionTip = false
Vue.use(ElementUI)
Vue.use(VueResource)
/* eslint-disable no-new */
new Vue({
  el: '#app',
  router,
  components: { App },
  template: '<App/>'
})

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src/component目录下新建Home.vue,包含showBooksaddBook两个方法用于api查询。

<template>
  <div class="home">
    <el-row display="margin-top:10px">
        <el-input v-model="input" placeholder="请输入书名" style="display:inline-table; width: 30%; float:left"></el-input>
        <el-button type="primary" @click="addBook()" style="float:left; margin: 2px;">新增</el-button>
    </el-row>
    <el-row>
        <el-table :data="bookList" style="width: 100%" border>
          <el-table-column prop="id" label="编号" min-width="100">
            <template scope="scope"> {{ scope.row.pk }} </template>
          </el-table-column>
          <el-table-column prop="book_name" label="书名" min-width="100">
            <template scope="scope"> {{ scope.row.fields.book_name }} </template>
          </el-table-column>
          <el-table-column prop="add_time" label="添加时间" min-width="100">
            <template scope="scope"> {{ scope.row.fields.add_time }} </template>
          </el-table-column>
        </el-table>
    </el-row>
  </div>
</template>

<script>
export default {
  name: 'home',
  data () {
    return {
      input: '',
      bookList: [],
    }
  },
  mounted: function() {
      this.showBooks()
  },
  methods: {
    addBook(){
      this.$http.get('http://139.198.114.148:8000/api/add_book?book_name=' + this.input)
        .then((response) => {
            var res = JSON.parse(response.bodyText)
            if (res.error_num == 0) {
              this.showBooks()
            } else {
              this.$message.error('新增书籍失败,请重试')
              console.log(res['msg'])
            }
        })
    },
    showBooks(){
      this.$http.get('http://139.198.114.148:8000/api/show_books')
        .then((response) => {
            var res = JSON.parse(response.bodyText)
            console.log(res)
            if (res.error_num == 0) {
              this.bookList = res['list']
            } else {
              this.$message.error('查询书籍失败')
              console.log(res['msg'])
            }
        })
    }
  }
}
</script>

<!-- Add "scoped" attribute to limit CSS to this component only -->
<style scoped>
h1, h2 {
  font-weight: normal;
}
ul {
  list-style-type: none;
  padding: 0;
}
li {
  display: inline-block;
  margin: 0 10px;
}
a {
  color: #42b983;
}
</style>
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我们通过django-cors-headers处理跨域问题

INSTALLED_APPS = [
    'django.contrib.admin',
    'django.contrib.auth',
    'django.contrib.contenttypes',
    'django.contrib.sessions',
    'django.contrib.messages',
    'django.contrib.staticfiles',
    'app',
    'corsheaders',  //添加app
]
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添加中间件corsheaders.middleware.CorsMiddleware

MIDDLEWARE = [
    'django.middleware.security.SecurityMiddleware',
    'django.contrib.sessions.middleware.SessionMiddleware',
    'django.middleware.common.CommonMiddleware',
    'django.middleware.csrf.CsrfViewMiddleware',
    'corsheaders.middleware.CorsMiddleware',
    'django.contrib.auth.middleware.AuthenticationMiddleware',
    'django.contrib.messages.middleware.MessageMiddleware',
    'django.middleware.clickjacking.XFrameOptionsMiddleware',
]
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在setting.py中配置跨域规则

CORS_ALLOW_METHODS = (
    'DELETE',
    'GET',
    'OPTIONS',
    'PATCH',
    'POST',
    'PUT',
    'VIEW',
)
  
CORS_ALLOW_HEADERS = (
    'accept',
    'accept-encoding',
    'authorization',
    'content-type',
    'dnt',
    'origin',
    'user-agent',
    'x-csrftoken',
    'x-requested-with',
)
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npm run dev启动node服务器

image-20210616232921950

通过npm run build打包前端到dist目录,用于后续django链接。


三、django链接到前端

调整django_vue目录下路由urls.py如下

from django.contrib import admin
from django.urls import path,include
from django.views.generic import TemplateView  //导入通用视图
import app.urls

urlpatterns = [
    path('admin/', admin.site.urls),
    path('api/',include(app.urls)),
    path('',TemplateView.as_view(template_name="index.html")), //路由到index.html
]

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在setting.py下添加静态文件地址

STATICFILES_DIRS = [(os.path.join(BASE_DIR,'appfront/dist/static'))] 
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启动django 服务

python manage.py runserver
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访问我们的django地址,此时django已链接到前端

image-20210616234100999


参考:github.com/rogerlh/dja…

NEXT

  • django-rest-framework 创建restful api
  • django wsgi的应用

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