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CommonJS modules

通过require()来引入module,通过exports来导出public属性。require不能引入.mjs的文件,require调用后寻找module的步骤是

require(X) from module at path Y
1. If X is a core module,
   a. return the core module
   b. STOP
2. If X begins with '/'
   a. set Y to be the filesystem root
3. If X begins with './' or '/' or '../'
   a. LOAD_AS_FILE(Y + X)
   b. LOAD_AS_DIRECTORY(Y + X)
   c. THROW "not found"
4. If X begins with '#'
   a. LOAD_PACKAGE_IMPORTS(X, dirname(Y))
5. LOAD_PACKAGE_SELF(X, dirname(Y))
6. LOAD_NODE_MODULES(X, dirname(Y))
7. THROW "not found"

LOAD_AS_FILE(X)
1. If X is a file, load X as its file extension format. STOP
2. If X.js is a file, load X.js as JavaScript text. STOP
3. If X.json is a file, parse X.json to a JavaScript Object. STOP
4. If X.node is a file, load X.node as binary addon. STOP

LOAD_INDEX(X)
1. If X/index.js is a file, load X/index.js as JavaScript text. STOP
2. If X/index.json is a file, parse X/index.json to a JavaScript object. STOP
3. If X/index.node is a file, load X/index.node as binary addon. STOP

LOAD_AS_DIRECTORY(X)
1. If X/package.json is a file,
   a. Parse X/package.json, and look for "main" field.
   b. If "main" is a falsy value, GOTO 2.
   c. let M = X + (json main field)
   d. LOAD_AS_FILE(M)
   e. LOAD_INDEX(M)
   f. LOAD_INDEX(X) DEPRECATED
   g. THROW "not found"
2. LOAD_INDEX(X)

LOAD_NODE_MODULES(X, START)
1. let DIRS = NODE_MODULES_PATHS(START)
2. for each DIR in DIRS:
   a. LOAD_PACKAGE_EXPORTS(X, DIR)
   b. LOAD_AS_FILE(DIR/X)
   c. LOAD_AS_DIRECTORY(DIR/X)

NODE_MODULES_PATHS(START)
1. let PARTS = path split(START)
2. let I = count of PARTS - 1
3. let DIRS = [GLOBAL_FOLDERS]
4. while I >= 0,
   a. if PARTS[I] = "node_modules" CONTINUE
   b. DIR = path join(PARTS[0 .. I] + "node_modules")
   c. DIRS = DIRS + DIR
   d. let I = I - 1
5. return DIRS

LOAD_PACKAGE_IMPORTS(X, DIR)
1. Find the closest package scope SCOPE to DIR.
2. If no scope was found, return.
3. If the SCOPE/package.json "imports" is null or undefined, return.
4. let MATCH = PACKAGE_IMPORTS_RESOLVE(X, pathToFileURL(SCOPE),
  ["node", "require"]) defined in the ESM resolver.
5. RESOLVE_ESM_MATCH(MATCH).

LOAD_PACKAGE_EXPORTS(X, DIR)
1. Try to interpret X as a combination of NAME and SUBPATH where the name
   may have a @scope/ prefix and the subpath begins with a slash (`/`).
2. If X does not match this pattern or DIR/NAME/package.json is not a file,
   return.
3. Parse DIR/NAME/package.json, and look for "exports" field.
4. If "exports" is null or undefined, return.
5. let MATCH = PACKAGE_EXPORTS_RESOLVE(pathToFileURL(DIR/NAME), "." + SUBPATH,
   `package.json` "exports", ["node", "require"]) defined in the ESM resolver.
6. RESOLVE_ESM_MATCH(MATCH)

LOAD_PACKAGE_SELF(X, DIR)
1. Find the closest package scope SCOPE to DIR.
2. If no scope was found, return.
3. If the SCOPE/package.json "exports" is null or undefined, return.
4. If the SCOPE/package.json "name" is not the first segment of X, return.
5. let MATCH = PACKAGE_EXPORTS_RESOLVE(pathToFileURL(SCOPE),
   "." + X.slice("name".length), `package.json` "exports", ["node", "require"])
   defined in the ESM resolver.
6. RESOLVE_ESM_MATCH(MATCH)

RESOLVE_ESM_MATCH(MATCH)
1. let { RESOLVED, EXACT } = MATCH
2. let RESOLVED_PATH = fileURLToPath(RESOLVED)
3. If EXACT is true,
   a. If the file at RESOLVED_PATH exists, load RESOLVED_PATH as its extension
      format. STOP
4. Otherwise, if EXACT is false,
   a. LOAD_AS_FILE(RESOLVED_PATH)
   b. LOAD_AS_DIRECTORY(RESOLVED_PATH)
5. THROW "not found

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执行时,将file文件内容包装后放到内存中。

(funciton(exports, require, module, __filename, __dirname) { // 包装头
  console.log('hello world!') // 原始文件
}); // 包装尾
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exports 是 module 的属性,默认情况是空对象

require 一个模块实际得到的是该模块的 exports 属性

_filename 文件绝对路径

__dirname 文件夹绝对路径

未完待续

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