Python接口自动化之request请求封装

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本文首发于:行者AI

我们在做自动化测试的时候,大家都是希望自己写的代码越简洁越好,代码重复量越少越好。那么,我们可以考虑将request的请求类型(如:Get、Post、Delect请求)都封装起来。这样,我们在编写用例的时候就可以直接进行请求了。

1. 源码分析

我们先来看一下Get、Post、Delect等请求的源码,看一下它们都有什么特点。

(1)Get请求源码


	def get(self, url, **kwargs):
		r"""Sends a GET request. Returns :class:`Response` object.
		:param url: URL for the new :class:`Request` object.
	    :param \*\*kwargs: Optional arguments that ``request`` takes.
	    :rtype: requests.Response
	     """
		
		kwargs.setdefault('allow_redirects', True)
		return self.request('GET', url, **kwargs) 
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(2)Post请求源码


	def post(self, url, data=None, json=None, **kwargs):
		r"""Sends a POST request. Returns :class:`Response` object.
		:param url: URL for the new :class:`Request` object.
	    :param data: (optional) Dictionary, list of tuples, bytes, or file-like
		object to send in the body of the :class:`Request`.
		:param json: (optional) json to send in the body of the :class:`Request`.
		:param \*\*kwargs: Optional arguments that ``request`` takes.
		:rtype: requests.Response
		"""
	
		return self.request('POST', url, data=data, json=json, **kwargs)  
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(3)Delect请求源码


    def delete(self, url, **kwargs):
        r"""Sends a DELETE request. Returns :class:`Response` object.
        :param url: URL for the new :class:`Request` object.
        :param \*\*kwargs: Optional arguments that ``request`` takes.
        :rtype: requests.Response
        """
    
        return self.request('DELETE', url, **kwargs)

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(4)分析结果

我们发现,不管是Get请求、还是Post请求或者是Delect请求,它们到最后返回的都是request函数。那么,我们再去看一看request函数的源码。


	def request(self, method, url,
	        params=None, data=None, headers=None, cookies=None, files=None,
	        auth=None, timeout=None, allow_redirects=True, proxies=None,
	        hooks=None, stream=None, verify=None, cert=None, json=None):
	    """Constructs a :class:`Request <Request>`, prepares it and sends it.
	    Returns :class:`Response <Response>` object.
	
	    :param method: method for the new :class:`Request` object.
	    :param url: URL for the new :class:`Request` object.
	    :param params: (optional) Dictionary or bytes to be sent in the query
	        string for the :class:`Request`.
	    :param data: (optional) Dictionary, list of tuples, bytes, or file-like
	        object to send in the body of the :class:`Request`.
	    :param json: (optional) json to send in the body of the
	        :class:`Request`.
	    :param headers: (optional) Dictionary of HTTP Headers to send with the
	        :class:`Request`.
	    :param cookies: (optional) Dict or CookieJar object to send with the
	        :class:`Request`.
	    :param files: (optional) Dictionary of ``'filename': file-like-objects``
	        for multipart encoding upload.
	    :param auth: (optional) Auth tuple or callable to enable
	        Basic/Digest/Custom HTTP Auth.
	    :param timeout: (optional) How long to wait for the server to send
	        data before giving up, as a float, or a :ref:`(connect timeout,
	        read timeout) <timeouts>` tuple.
	    :type timeout: float or tuple
	    :param allow_redirects: (optional) Set to True by default.
	    :type allow_redirects: bool
	    :param proxies: (optional) Dictionary mapping protocol or protocol and
	        hostname to the URL of the proxy.
	    :param stream: (optional) whether to immediately download the response
	        content. Defaults to ``False``.
	    :param verify: (optional) Either a boolean, in which case it controls whether we verify
	        the server's TLS certificate, or a string, in which case it must be a path
	        to a CA bundle to use. Defaults to ``True``.
	    :param cert: (optional) if String, path to ssl client cert file (.pem).
	        If Tuple, ('cert', 'key') pair.
	    :rtype: requests.Response
	    """
	    # Create the Request.
	    req = Request(
	        method=method.upper(),
	        url=url,
	        headers=headers,
	        files=files,
	        data=data or {},
	        json=json,
	        params=params or {},
	        auth=auth,
	        cookies=cookies,
	        hooks=hooks,
	    )
	    prep = self.prepare_request(req)
	
	    proxies = proxies or {}
	
	    settings = self.merge_environment_settings(
	        prep.url, proxies, stream, verify, cert
	    )
	
	    # Send the request.
	    send_kwargs = {
	        'timeout': timeout,
	        'allow_redirects': allow_redirects,
	    }
	    send_kwargs.update(settings)
	    resp = self.send(prep, **send_kwargs)
	
	    return resp    

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从request源码可以看出,它先创建一个Request,然后将传过来的所有参数放在里面,再接着调用self.send(),并将Request传过去。这里我们将不在分析后面的send等方法的源码了,有兴趣的同学可以自行了解。

分析完源码之后发现,我们可以不需要单独在一个类中去定义Get、Post等其他方法,然后在单独调用request。其实,我们直接调用request即可。

2. requests请求封装

代码示例:


	import requests
	
	class RequestMain:
	    def __init__(self):
	        """
	
	        session管理器
	        requests.session(): 维持会话,跨请求的时候保存参数
	        """
	        # 实例化session
	        self.session = requests.session()
	
	    def request_main(self, method, url, params=None, data=None, json=None, headers=None, **kwargs):
	        """
	
	        :param method: 请求方式
	        :param url: 请求地址
	        :param params: 字典或bytes,作为参数增加到url中         
			:param data: data类型传参,字典、字节序列或文件对象,作为Request的内容
	        :param json: json传参,作为Request的内容
	        :param headers: 请求头,字典
	        :param kwargs: 若还有其他的参数,使用可变参数字典形式进行传递
	        :return:
	        """
	
	        # 对异常进行捕获
	        try:
	            """
	            
	            封装request请求,将请求方法、请求地址,请求参数、请求头等信息入参。
	            注 :verify: True/False,默认为True,认证SSL证书开关;cert: 本地SSL证书。如果不需要ssl认证,可将这两个入参去掉
	            """
	            re_data = self.session.request(method, url, params=params, data=data, json=json, headers=headers, cert=(client_crt, client_key), verify=False, **kwargs)
	        # 异常处理 报错显示具体信息
	        except Exception as e:
	            # 打印异常
	            print("请求失败:{0}".format(e))
	        # 返回响应结果
	        return re_data


	if __name__ == '__main__':
	    # 请求地址
	    url = '请求地址'
	    # 请求参数
	    payload = {"请求参数"}
	    # 请求头
	    header = {"headers"}
	    # 实例化 RequestMain()
	    re = RequestMain()
	    # 调用request_main,并将参数传过去
	    request_data = re.request_main("请求方式", url, json=payload, headers=header)
	    # 打印响应结果
	    print(request_data.text)  
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:如果你调的接口不需要SSL认证,可将certverify两个参数去掉。

3. 总结

本文只是简单的介绍了Python接口自动化之request请求封装,后期还有许多优化的地方,希望和大家一起来探讨。


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