SpringBoot整合Shrio

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1、Shiro简介

1.1、Shiro 是什么?

Apache Shiro 是 Java 的一个安全(权限)框架。

Shiro 可以非常容易的开发出足够好的应用,其不仅可以用在 JavaSE 环境,也可以用在 JavaEE 环境。

Shiro 可以完成:认证、授权、加密、会话管理、与Web 集成、缓存等。

下载地址

官网:shiro.apache.org/ github:github.com/apache/shir…

1.2、有哪些功能?

  • Authentication:身份认证/登录,验证用户是不是拥有相应的身份

  • Authorization:授权,即权限验证,验证某个已认证的用户是否拥有某个权限;即判断用户是否能进行什么操作,如:验证某个用户是否拥有某个角色。或者细粒度的验证某个用户对某个资源是否具有某个权限

  • Session Management:会话管理,即用户登录后就是一次会话,在没有退出之前,它的所有信息都在会话中;会话可以是普通JavaSE环境,也可以是Web 环境的

  • Cryptography:加密,保护数据的安全性,如密码加密存储到数据库,而不是明文存储

  • Web Support:Web 支持,可以非常容易的集成到Web 环境

  • Caching:缓存,比如用户登录后,其用户信息、拥有的角色/权限不必每次去查,这样可以提高效率

  • Concurrency:Shiro支持多线程应用的并发验证,即如在一个线程中开启另一个线程,能把权限自动传播过去

  • esting:提供测试支持

  • “Run As”:允许一个用户假装为另一个用户(如果他们允许)的身份进行访问

  • Remember Me:记住我,这个是非常常见的功能,即一次登录后,下次再来的话不用登录了

1.3、Shiro架构(外部)

从外部来看Shiro,即从应用程序角度的来观察如何使用Shiro完成工作

  • Subject:应用代码直接交互的对象是Subject,也就是说Shiro的对外API 核心就是Subject。Subject 代表了当前“用户”,这个用户不一定是一个具体的人,与当前应用交互的任何东西都是Subject,如网络爬虫,机器人等;与Subject 的所有交互都会委托给SecurityManager;Subject 其实是一个门面,SecurityManager才是实际的执行者

  • SecurityManager:安全管理器;即所有与安全有关的操作都会与SecurityManager交互;且其管理着所有Subject;可以看出它是Shiro的核心,它负责与Shiro的其他组件进行交互,它相当于SpringMVC中DispatcherServlet的角色

  • Realm:Shiro从Realm 获取安全数据(如用户、角色、权限),就是说SecurityManager要验证用户身份,那么它需要从Realm 获取相应的用户进行比较以确定用户身份是否合法;也需要从Realm 得到用户相应的角色/权限进行验证用户是否能进行操作;可以把Realm 看成DataSource

1.4、Shiro架构(内部)

  • Subject:任何可以与应用交互的“用户”;
  • SecurityManager:相当于SpringMVC中的DispatcherServlet;是Shiro的心脏;所有具体的交互都通过SecurityManager进行控制;它管理着所有Subject、且负责进行认证、授权、会话及缓存的管理。
  • Authenticator:负责Subject 认证,是一个扩展点,可以自定义实现;可以使用认证策略(Authentication Strategy),即什么情况下算用户认证通过了;
  • Authorizer:授权器、即访问控制器,用来决定主体是否有权限进行相应的操作;即控制着用户能访问应用中的哪些功能;
  • Realm:可以有1 个或多个Realm,可以认为是安全实体数据源,即用于获取安全实体的;可以是JDBC 实现,也可以是内存实现等等;由用户提供;所以一般在应用中都需要实现自己的Realm;
  • SessionManager:管理Session 生命周期的组件;而Shiro并不仅仅可以用在Web 环境,也可以用在如普通的JavaSE环境
  • CacheManager:缓存控制器,来管理如用户、角色、权限等的缓存的;因为这些数据基本上很少改变,放到缓存中后可以提高访问的性能
  • Cryptography:密码模块,Shiro提高了一些常见的加密组件用于如密码加密/解密。

2、Hello World

2.1、快速实践

查看官方文档:shiro.apache.org/tutorial.ht…

官方的quickstart : github.com/apache/shir… 1、创建一个maven父工程,用来学习Shiro,删掉不必要的部分

2、创建一个普通的Maven子工程:hell-shiro

3、 根据官方文档,我们导入Shiro的依赖

<dependencies>
    <dependency>
        <groupId>org.apache.shiro</groupId>
        <artifactId>shiro-core</artifactId>
        <version>1.5.3</version>
    </dependency>

    <!-- configure logging -->
    <dependency>
        <groupId>org.slf4j</groupId>
        <artifactId>jcl-over-slf4j</artifactId>
        <version>1.7.26</version>
    </dependency>
    <dependency>
        <groupId>org.slf4j</groupId>
        <artifactId>slf4j-log4j12</artifactId>
        <version>1.7.26</version>
    </dependency>
    <dependency>
        <groupId>log4j</groupId>
        <artifactId>log4j</artifactId>
        <version>1.2.17</version>
    </dependency>
</dependencies>

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4、 相关配置文件

log4j.rootLogger=INFO, stdout

log4j.appender.stdout=org.apache.log4j.ConsoleAppender
log4j.appender.stdout.layout=org.apache.log4j.PatternLayout
log4j.appender.stdout.layout.ConversionPattern=%d %p [%c] - %m %n

# General Apache libraries
log4j.logger.org.apache=WARN

# Spring
log4j.logger.org.springframework=WARN

# Default Shiro logging
log4j.logger.org.apache.shiro=INFO

# Disable verbose logging
log4j.logger.org.apache.shiro.util.ThreadContext=WARN
log4j.logger.org.apache.shiro.cache.ehcache.EhCache=WARN
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[users]
# user 'root' with password 'secret' and the 'admin' role
root = secret, admin
# user 'guest' with the password 'guest' and the 'guest' role
guest = guest, guest
# user 'presidentskroob' with password '12345' ("That's the same combination on
# my luggage!!!" ;)), and role 'president'
presidentskroob = 12345, president
# user 'darkhelmet' with password 'ludicrousspeed' and roles 'darklord' and 'schwartz'
darkhelmet = ludicrousspeed, darklord, schwartz
# user 'lonestarr' with password 'vespa' and roles 'goodguy' and 'schwartz'
lonestarr = vespa, goodguy, schwartz

# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Roles with assigned permissions
# 
# Each line conforms to the format defined in the
# org.apache.shiro.realm.text.TextConfigurationRealm#setRoleDefinitions JavaDoc
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
[roles]
# 'admin' role has all permissions, indicated by the wildcard '*'
admin = *
# The 'schwartz' role can do anything (*) with any lightsaber:
schwartz = lightsaber:*
# The 'goodguy' role is allowed to 'drive' (action) the winnebago (type) with
# license plate 'eagle5' (instance specific id)
goodguy = winnebago:drive:eagle5
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public class Quickstart {

    private static final transient Logger log = LoggerFactory.getLogger(Quickstart.class);


    public static void main(String[] args) {

        // The easiest way to create a Shiro SecurityManager with configured
        // realms, users, roles and permissions is to use the simple INI config.
        // We'll do that by using a factory that can ingest a .ini file and
        // return a SecurityManager instance:

        // Use the shiro.ini file at the root of the classpath
        // (file: and url: prefixes load from files and urls respectively):
        // 读取配置文件:
        Factory<SecurityManager> factory = new IniSecurityManagerFactory("classpath:shiro.ini");
        SecurityManager securityManager = factory.getInstance();

        // for this simple example quickstart, make the SecurityManager
        // accessible as a JVM singleton.  Most applications wouldn't do this
        // and instead rely on their container configuration or web.xml for
        // webapps.  That is outside the scope of this simple quickstart, so
        // we'll just do the bare minimum so you can continue to get a feel
        // for things.
        SecurityUtils.setSecurityManager(securityManager);

        // Now that a simple Shiro environment is set up, let's see what you can do:

        // get the currently executing user:
        // 获取当前的用户对象 Subject
        Subject currentUser = SecurityUtils.getSubject();

        // Do some stuff with a Session (no need for a web or EJB container!!!)
        //通过当前用户拿到Shiro的Session 可以脱离web存值取值
        Session session = currentUser.getSession();
        session.setAttribute("someKey", "aValue");
        String value = (String) session.getAttribute("someKey");
        if (value.equals("aValue")) {
            log.info("Retrieved the correct value! [" + value + "]");
        }

        // let's login the current user so we can check against roles and permissions:
        //判断当前的用户是否被认证
        if (!currentUser.isAuthenticated()) {
            //Token 令牌
            UsernamePasswordToken token = new UsernamePasswordToken("lonestarr", "vespa");
            //设置记住我
            token.setRememberMe(true);
            try {
                //执行登录操作
                currentUser.login(token);
            } catch (UnknownAccountException uae) {
                log.info("There is no user with username of " + token.getPrincipal());
            } catch (IncorrectCredentialsException ice) {
                log.info("Password for account " + token.getPrincipal() + " was incorrect!");
            } catch (LockedAccountException lae) {
                log.info("The account for username " + token.getPrincipal() + " is locked.  " +
                        "Please contact your administrator to unlock it.");
            }
            // ... catch more exceptions here (maybe custom ones specific to your application?
            catch (AuthenticationException ae) {
                //unexpected condition?  error?
            }
        }

        //say who they are:
        //print their identifying principal (in this case, a username):
        log.info("User [" + currentUser.getPrincipal() + "] logged in successfully.");

        //test a role:
        // 检查角色
        if (currentUser.hasRole("schwartz")) {
            log.info("May the Schwartz be with you!");
        } else {
            log.info("Hello, mere mortal.");
        }

        //test a typed permission (not instance-level)
        //粗粒度
        if (currentUser.isPermitted("lightsaber:wield")) {
            log.info("You may use a lightsaber ring.  Use it wisely.");
        } else {
            log.info("Sorry, lightsaber rings are for schwartz masters only.");
        }

        //a (very powerful) Instance Level permission:
        //细粒度
        if (currentUser.isPermitted("winnebago:drive:eagle5")) {
            log.info("You are permitted to 'drive' the winnebago with license plate (id) 'eagle5'.  " +
                    "Here are the keys - have fun!");
        } else {
            log.info("Sorry, you aren't allowed to drive the 'eagle5' winnebago!");
        }

        //all done - log out!
        //注销
        currentUser.logout();

        //结束
        System.exit(0);
    }
}
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2.2、案例中的关键步骤

1、获取 SecurityManager

Factory<SecurityManager> factory = new IniSecurityManagerFactory("classpath:shiro.ini");
SecurityManager securityManager = factory.getInstance();
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2、通过 SecurityUtils 获取当前执行的用户 Subject

SecurityUtils.setSecurityManager(securityManager);
Subject currentUser = SecurityUtils.getSubject();
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3、通过 当前用户拿到 Session

Session session = currentUser.getSession(); 4、用 Session 存值取值

session.setAttribute("someKey", "aValue");
String value = (String) session.getAttribute("someKey");
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5、判断用户是否被认证

currentUser.isAuthenticated()
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6、执行登录操作

currentUser.login(token);
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7、打印其标识主体

currentUser.getPrincipal()
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8、注销

currentUser.logout();
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3、Spring集成Shiro

3.1、集成Shiro的步骤

1、 导入 SpringBoot 和 Shiro 整合包的依赖

<!--SpringBoot 和 Shiro 整合包-->
		<!-- https://mvnrepository.com/artifact/org.apache.shiro/shiro-spring-boot-web-starter -->
		<dependency>
			<groupId>org.apache.shiro</groupId>
			<artifactId>shiro-spring-boot-web-starter</artifactId>
			<version>1.6.0</version>
		</dependency>
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2、 编写自定义的 realm ,需要继承 AuthorizingRealm

//自定义的 Realm
public class UserRealm extends AuthorizingRealm {
    //授权

    @Override
    protected AuthorizationInfo doGetAuthorizationInfo(PrincipalCollection principalCollection) {
        //打印一个提示
        System.out.println("执行了授权方法");
        return null;
    }

    //认证

    @Override
    protected AuthenticationInfo doGetAuthenticationInfo(AuthenticationToken authenticationToken) throws AuthenticationException {
        //打印一个提示
        System.out.println("执行了认证方法");
        return null;
    }
}
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3、 新建一个 ShiroConfig配置文件

@Configuration
public class ShiroConfig {

    //ShiroFilterBean  3
    @Bean
    public ShiroFilterFactoryBean getShiroFilterFactoryBean(@Qualifier("securityManager") DefaultSecurityManager securityManager){
        ShiroFilterFactoryBean shiroFilterFactoryBean = new ShiroFilterFactoryBean();
        shiroFilterFactoryBean.setSecurityManager(securityManager);

        //设置shiro的内置过滤器
        Map<String, String> filterMap = new LinkedHashMap<>();
        filterMap.put("/user/add", "perms[user:add]");  //authc 需要认证
        filterMap.put("/user/update", "perms[user:update]");
        shiroFilterFactoryBean.setFilterChainDefinitionMap(filterMap);

        shiroFilterFactoryBean.setLoginUrl("/toLogin");

        return shiroFilterFactoryBean;
    }

    //DefaultWebSecurityManager  2
    @Bean(name = "securityManager")
    public DefaultWebSecurityManager getDefaultWebSecurityManager(@Qualifier("userRealm") UserRealm userRealm){
        DefaultWebSecurityManager securityManager=new DefaultWebSecurityManager();

        //关联UserRealm
        securityManager.setRealm(userRealm);

        return securityManager;
    }

    @Bean   //1
    public UserRealm userRealm() {
        UserRealm realm = new UserRealm();
        return realm;
    }

    // 整合ShiroDialect: 用来整合 Shiro thymeleaf
    @Bean
    public ShiroDialect getShiroDialect() {
        return new ShiroDialect();
    }

}
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3.2、测试

1、 登录拦截

在Shiro的配置文件的ShiroFilterBean中添加过滤器

//添加 Shiro 的内置过滤器=======================
        /*
            anon : 无需认证,就可以访问
            authc : 必须认证,才能访问
            user : 必须拥有 “记住我”功能才能用
            perms : 拥有对某个资源的权限才能访问
            role : 拥有某个角色权限才能访问
         */
          设置 /user/addUser 这个请求,只有认证过才能访问
          map.put("/user/addUser","authc");
          map.put("/user/deleteUser","authc");

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2、用户认证

//登录的方法
    @RequestMapping("/login")
    public String login(String username, String password, Model model) {
        //获取当前用户
        Subject subject = SecurityUtils.getSubject();
        //没有认证过
        //封装用户的登录数据,获得令牌
        UsernamePasswordToken token = new UsernamePasswordToken(username, password);

        //登录 及 异常处理
        try {
            //用户登录
            subject.login(token);
            return "index";
        } catch (UnknownAccountException uae) {
            //如果用户名不存在
            System.out.println("用户名不存在");
            model.addAttribute("exception", "用户名不存在");
            return "login";
        } catch (IncorrectCredentialsException ice) {
            //如果密码错误
            System.out.println("密码错误");
            model.addAttribute("exception", "密码错误");
            return "login";
        }
    }
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3、退出登录

//退出登录
@RequestMapping("/logout")
public String logout(){
    Subject subject = SecurityUtils.getSubject();
    subject.logout();
    return "login";
}
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