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Kubernetes源码分析之kube-scheduler

本节开始主要分析kubernetes源码部分,版本基于当前最新的1.13.4。

启动分析

Kubernetes基础组件的入口均在cmd目录下,kube-schduler入口在scheduler.go下,如图

kubernetes所有的组件启动采用的均是command的形式,引用的是spf13类库
通过将配置文件转化成command的形式,调用Execute方法执行定义的Run方法
进入runCommand方法,通过完成配置的初始化,调用Run方法,进一步启动。

Run方法分析

Run方法主要做了以下工作:
1、判断是否需要添加VolumeScheduling新特性;
2、初始化调度参数的相关结构体;
3、配置准备事件广播;
4、健康检查相关配置;
5、Metrics相关配置;
6、启动所有的Informer(kubernetes主要就是通过InformerWorkqueue机制监听事件的变化);
7、判断是否需要LeaderElection,决定最终的启动。

调度接口

最终的调度接口进入的是pkg下的scheduler.go文件,通过启动单独的协程处理调度工作。

scheduleOne方法分析

scheduleOne,顾名思义,每次调度一个Pod,整体文件如下

// scheduleOne does the entire scheduling workflow for a single pod.  It is serialized on the scheduling algorithm's host fitting.
func (sched *Scheduler) scheduleOne() {
	// 1.从队列中取出待调度的Pod
	pod := sched.config.NextPod()
	// pod could be nil when schedulerQueue is closed
	if pod == nil {
		return
	}
	if pod.DeletionTimestamp != nil {
		sched.config.Recorder.Eventf(pod, v1.EventTypeWarning, "FailedScheduling", "skip schedule deleting pod: %v/%v", pod.Namespace, pod.Name)
		klog.V(3).Infof("Skip schedule deleting pod: %v/%v", pod.Namespace, pod.Name)
		return
	}

	klog.V(3).Infof("Attempting to schedule pod: %v/%v", pod.Namespace, pod.Name)

	// Synchronously attempt to find a fit for the pod.
	start := time.Now()
	// 2.获取待调度Pod匹配的主机名
	suggestedHost, err := sched.schedule(pod)
	if err != nil {
		// schedule() may have failed because the pod would not fit on any host, so we try to
		// preempt, with the expectation that the next time the pod is tried for scheduling it
		// will fit due to the preemption. It is also possible that a different pod will schedule
		// into the resources that were preempted, but this is harmless.
		if fitError, ok := err.(*core.FitError); ok {
			preemptionStartTime := time.Now()
			sched.preempt(pod, fitError)
			metrics.PreemptionAttempts.Inc()
			metrics.SchedulingAlgorithmPremptionEvaluationDuration.Observe(metrics.SinceInMicroseconds(preemptionStartTime))
			metrics.SchedulingLatency.WithLabelValues(metrics.PreemptionEvaluation).Observe(metrics.SinceInSeconds(preemptionStartTime))
			// Pod did not fit anywhere, so it is counted as a failure. If preemption
			// succeeds, the pod should get counted as a success the next time we try to
			// schedule it. (hopefully)
			metrics.PodScheduleFailures.Inc()
		} else {
			klog.Errorf("error selecting node for pod: %v", err)
			metrics.PodScheduleErrors.Inc()
		}
		return
	}
	metrics.SchedulingAlgorithmLatency.Observe(metrics.SinceInMicroseconds(start))
	// Tell the cache to assume that a pod now is running on a given node, even though it hasn't been bound yet.
	// This allows us to keep scheduling without waiting on binding to occur.
	// 3.Pod与Node缓存,保证调度一直进行,不用等待每次绑定完成(绑定是一个耗时的过程)
	assumedPod := pod.DeepCopy()

	// Assume volumes first before assuming the pod.
	//
	// If all volumes are completely bound, then allBound is true and binding will be skipped.
	//
	// Otherwise, binding of volumes is started after the pod is assumed, but before pod binding.
	//
	// This function modifies 'assumedPod' if volume binding is required.
	// 4.判断是否需要VolumeScheduling特性
	allBound, err := sched.assumeVolumes(assumedPod, suggestedHost)
	if err != nil {
		klog.Errorf("error assuming volumes: %v", err)
		metrics.PodScheduleErrors.Inc()
		return
	}

	// assume modifies `assumedPod` by setting NodeName=suggestedHost
	// 5.Pod对应的NodeName写上主机名,存入缓存
	err = sched.assume(assumedPod, suggestedHost)
	if err != nil {
		klog.Errorf("error assuming pod: %v", err)
		metrics.PodScheduleErrors.Inc()
		return
	}
	// bind the pod to its host asynchronously (we can do this b/c of the assumption step above).
	// 6.请求apiserver,异步处理最终的绑定,写入到etcd
	go func() {
		// Bind volumes first before Pod
		if !allBound {
			err := sched.bindVolumes(assumedPod)
			if err != nil {
				klog.Errorf("error binding volumes: %v", err)
				metrics.PodScheduleErrors.Inc()
				return
			}
		}

		err := sched.bind(assumedPod, &v1.Binding{
			ObjectMeta: metav1.ObjectMeta{Namespace: assumedPod.Namespace, Name: assumedPod.Name, UID: assumedPod.UID},
			Target: v1.ObjectReference{
				Kind: "Node",
				Name: suggestedHost,
			},
		})
		metrics.E2eSchedulingLatency.Observe(metrics.SinceInMicroseconds(start))
		if err != nil {
			klog.Errorf("error binding pod: %v", err)
			metrics.PodScheduleErrors.Inc()
		} else {
			metrics.PodScheduleSuccesses.Inc()
		}
	}()
}
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主要做了以下工作:
1、从队列中取出待调度的Pod
2、根据调度算法(预选+优选)获取待调度Pod匹配的主机,如果未获取到合适的主机,判断是否需要preempt,即Pod的抢占策略,为Pod分配节点
3、将当前Pod缓存起来,假定已经绑定成功(主要是为了将scheduling与binding过程分开)
4、判断是否需要VolumeScheduling特性继续添加Pod信息
5、Pod对应的NodeName写上主机名(调度的本质就是将为空的NodeName写上相应的Node的值)
6、启动新的binding协程,请求apiserver,异步处理最终的绑定,将结果写入到etcd中

调度算法

最终的调度在generic_scheduler.goSchedule方法。调度主要分两步,预选优选

预选

预选算法调用的接口是findNodesThatFit,主要代码如下:

// Filters the nodes to find the ones that fit based on the given predicate functions
// Each node is passed through the predicate functions to determine if it is a fit
func (g *genericScheduler) findNodesThatFit(pod *v1.Pod, nodes []*v1.Node) ([]*v1.Node, FailedPredicateMap, error) {
	var filtered []*v1.Node
	failedPredicateMap := FailedPredicateMap{}

	// 该if表示,如果没有配置预选的算法,则直接将所有的Node写入匹配数组
	if len(g.predicates) == 0 {
		filtered = nodes
	} else {
		allNodes := int32(g.cache.NodeTree().NumNodes)
		// numFeasibleNodesToFind保证一次性不用返回过多的Node数量,避免数组过大
		numNodesToFind := g.numFeasibleNodesToFind(allNodes)

		// Create filtered list with enough space to avoid growing it
		// and allow assigning.
		filtered = make([]*v1.Node, numNodesToFind)
		errs := errors.MessageCountMap{}
		var (
			predicateResultLock sync.Mutex
			filteredLen         int32
			equivClass          *equivalence.Class
		)

		ctx, cancel := context.WithCancel(context.Background())

		// We can use the same metadata producer for all nodes.
		meta := g.predicateMetaProducer(pod, g.cachedNodeInfoMap)

		if g.equivalenceCache != nil {
			// getEquivalenceClassInfo will return immediately if no equivalence pod found
			equivClass = equivalence.NewClass(pod)
		}

		// checkNode处理预选策略
		checkNode := func(i int) {
			var nodeCache *equivalence.NodeCache
			// 每次获取Node信息
			nodeName := g.cache.NodeTree().Next()
			if g.equivalenceCache != nil {
				nodeCache = g.equivalenceCache.LoadNodeCache(nodeName)
			}
			fits, failedPredicates, err := podFitsOnNode(
				pod,
				meta,
				g.cachedNodeInfoMap[nodeName],
				g.predicates,
				nodeCache,
				g.schedulingQueue,
				g.alwaysCheckAllPredicates,
				equivClass,
			)
			if err != nil {
				predicateResultLock.Lock()
				errs[err.Error()]++
				predicateResultLock.Unlock()
				return
			}
			if fits {
				// 保证获取的Node数量在numNodesToFind内
				length := atomic.AddInt32(&filteredLen, 1)
				if length > numNodesToFind {
					// 通知ParallelizeUntil任务结束
					cancel()
					atomic.AddInt32(&filteredLen, -1)
				} else {
					filtered[length-1] = g.cachedNodeInfoMap[nodeName].Node()
				}
			} else {
				predicateResultLock.Lock()
				failedPredicateMap[nodeName] = failedPredicates
				predicateResultLock.Unlock()
			}
		}

		// Stops searching for more nodes once the configured number of feasible nodes
		// are found.
		// 并行处理多个Node的checkNode工作
		workqueue.ParallelizeUntil(ctx, 16, int(allNodes), checkNode)

		filtered = filtered[:filteredLen]
		if len(errs) > 0 {
			return []*v1.Node{}, FailedPredicateMap{}, errors.CreateAggregateFromMessageCountMap(errs)
		}
	}

	if len(filtered) > 0 && len(g.extenders) != 0 {
		for _, extender := range g.extenders {
			if !extender.IsInterested(pod) {
				continue
			}
			filteredList, failedMap, err := extender.Filter(pod, filtered, g.cachedNodeInfoMap)
			if err != nil {
				if extender.IsIgnorable() {
					klog.Warningf("Skipping extender %v as it returned error %v and has ignorable flag set",
						extender, err)
					continue
				} else {
					return []*v1.Node{}, FailedPredicateMap{}, err
				}
			}

			for failedNodeName, failedMsg := range failedMap {
				if _, found := failedPredicateMap[failedNodeName]; !found {
					failedPredicateMap[failedNodeName] = []algorithm.PredicateFailureReason{}
				}
				failedPredicateMap[failedNodeName] = append(failedPredicateMap[failedNodeName], predicates.NewFailureReason(failedMsg))
			}
			filtered = filteredList
			if len(filtered) == 0 {
				break
			}
		}
	}
	return filtered, failedPredicateMap, nil
}
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findNodesThatFit主要做了几个操作
1、判断是否配置了预选算法,如果没有,直接返回Node列表信息;
2、如果配置了预选算法,则同时对多个Node(最多一次16个)调用checkNode方法,判断Pod是否可以调度在该Node上;
3、预选筛选之后,如果配置了调度的扩展算法,需要继续对筛选后的Pod与Node进行再一次的筛选,获取最终匹配的Node列表。
这里有一个注意的地方,获取匹配的Node节点数量时,通过numFeasibleNodesToFind函数限制了每次获取的节点数,最大值为100。这样当匹配到相应的Node数时,checkNode方法不再调用。
这里个人觉着有些问题,当Node数量足够多的时候(大于100),由于numFeasibleNodesToFind限制了Node数量,导致并不能扫描到所有的Node,这样可能导致最合适的Node没有被扫描到,匹配到的只是较优先的Node,则最终调度到的Node也不是最合适的Node,只是相较于比较合适。
最终实现调度判断的接口是podFitsOnNode
podFitsOnNode最难理解的就是for循环了两次,根据注释,大致意思如下:
1、第一次循环,将所有的优先级比较高或者相等的nominatedPods加入到Node中,更新metanodeInfonominatedPods是指已经分配到Node内但是还没有真正运行起来的Pods。这样做可以保证优先级高的Pods不会因为现在的Pod的加入而导致调度失败;
2、第二次调度,不将nominatedPods加入到Node内。这样的原因是因为考虑到像Pod affinity策略的话,如果当前的Pod依赖的是nominatedPods,这样就会有问题。因为,nominatedPods不能保证一定可以调度到相应的Node上。

// podFitsOnNode checks whether a node given by NodeInfo satisfies the given predicate functions.
// For given pod, podFitsOnNode will check if any equivalent pod exists and try to reuse its cached
// predicate results as possible.
// This function is called from two different places: Schedule and Preempt.
// When it is called from Schedule, we want to test whether the pod is schedulable
// on the node with all the existing pods on the node plus higher and equal priority
// pods nominated to run on the node.
// When it is called from Preempt, we should remove the victims of preemption and
// add the nominated pods. Removal of the victims is done by SelectVictimsOnNode().
// It removes victims from meta and NodeInfo before calling this function.
// ---
// podFitsOnNode根据给定的NodeInfo判断是否匹配相应的预选函数
// 对于一个给定的Pod,podFitsOnNode会检查之前是否有等价的Pod,这样就可以直接复用等价Pod的预选结果
// 该函数会有两个地方调用:Schedule和Preempt
// 当Schedule(正常调度)的时候,判断Node上所有已经存在的Pod和将被指定将要调度到这个Node上的其他所有高优先级Pod外,当前的Pod是否可以调度
// 当Preempt(抢占式)的时候,待定。。。
func podFitsOnNode(
	pod *v1.Pod,
	meta algorithm.PredicateMetadata,
	info *schedulercache.NodeInfo,
	predicateFuncs map[string]algorithm.FitPredicate,
	nodeCache *equivalence.NodeCache,
	queue internalqueue.SchedulingQueue,
	alwaysCheckAllPredicates bool,
	equivClass *equivalence.Class,
) (bool, []algorithm.PredicateFailureReason, error) {
	var (
		eCacheAvailable  bool
		failedPredicates []algorithm.PredicateFailureReason
	)

	podsAdded := false
	// We run predicates twice in some cases. If the node has greater or equal priority
	// nominated pods, we run them when those pods are added to meta and nodeInfo.
	// If all predicates succeed in this pass, we run them again when these
	// nominated pods are not added. This second pass is necessary because some
	// predicates such as inter-pod affinity may not pass without the nominated pods.
	// If there are no nominated pods for the node or if the first run of the
	// predicates fail, we don't run the second pass.
	// We consider only equal or higher priority pods in the first pass, because
	// those are the current "pod" must yield to them and not take a space opened
	// for running them. It is ok if the current "pod" take resources freed for
	// lower priority pods.
	// Requiring that the new pod is schedulable in both circumstances ensures that
	// we are making a conservative decision: predicates like resources and inter-pod
	// anti-affinity are more likely to fail when the nominated pods are treated
	// as running, while predicates like pod affinity are more likely to fail when
	// the nominated pods are treated as not running. We can't just assume the
	// nominated pods are running because they are not running right now and in fact,
	// they may end up getting scheduled to a different node.
	// 两次循环的原因主要就是因为NominatedPods调度的不一定就是此Node,还有Pod的亲和性等问题
	for i := 0; i < 2; i++ {
		metaToUse := meta
		nodeInfoToUse := info
		if i == 0 {
			// 第一次调度,根据NominatedPods更新meta和nodeInfo信息,pod根据更新后的信息去预选
			// 第二次调度,meta和nodeInfo信息不变,保证pod不完全依赖于NominatedPods(主要考虑到pod亲和性之类的)
			podsAdded, metaToUse, nodeInfoToUse = addNominatedPods(pod, meta, info, queue)
		} else if !podsAdded || len(failedPredicates) != 0 {
			break
		}
		// Bypass eCache if node has any nominated pods.
		// TODO(bsalamat): consider using eCache and adding proper eCache invalidations
		// when pods are nominated or their nominations change.
		eCacheAvailable = equivClass != nil && nodeCache != nil && !podsAdded
		for predicateID, predicateKey := range predicates.Ordering() {
			var (
				fit     bool
				reasons []algorithm.PredicateFailureReason
				err     error
			)
			//TODO (yastij) : compute average predicate restrictiveness to export it as Prometheus metric
			if predicate, exist := predicateFuncs[predicateKey]; exist {
				if eCacheAvailable {
					fit, reasons, err = nodeCache.RunPredicate(predicate, predicateKey, predicateID, pod, metaToUse, nodeInfoToUse, equivClass)
				} else {
					fit, reasons, err = predicate(pod, metaToUse, nodeInfoToUse)
				}
				if err != nil {
					return false, []algorithm.PredicateFailureReason{}, err
				}

				if !fit {
					// eCache is available and valid, and predicates result is unfit, record the fail reasons
					failedPredicates = append(failedPredicates, reasons...)
					// if alwaysCheckAllPredicates is false, short circuit all predicates when one predicate fails.
					if !alwaysCheckAllPredicates {
						klog.V(5).Infoln("since alwaysCheckAllPredicates has not been set, the predicate " +
							"evaluation is short circuited and there are chances " +
							"of other predicates failing as well.")
						break
					}
				}
			}
		}
	}

	return len(failedPredicates) == 0, failedPredicates, nil
}
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之后就是根据预选的调度算法,一个个判断是否都满足。这里有个小优化,如果当前的Pod在之前有一个等价的Pod,则直接从缓存返回相应上一次的结果。如果成功则不用继续调用预选算法。但是,对于缓存部分,我个人有些疑问,可能对于上一个Pod缓存的结果是成功的,但是本次调度,Node信息发生变化了,缓存结果是成功的,但是实际上可能并不一定会成功。

预选调度算法

本节主要说的是默认的调度算法。默认的代码在pkg/scheduler/algorithmprovider/defaults/defaults.go下,defaultPredicates方法返回的是默认的一系列预选算法。与预选相关的代码都在pkg/scheduler/algorithm/predicates/predicates.go

对于每一个调度算法,有一个优先级Order,官网有详细的描述。
调度方法基本一致,参数为(pod *v1.Pod, meta algorithm.PredicateMetadata, nodeInfo *schedulercache.NodeInfo),返回值为(bool, []algorithm.PredicateFailureReason, error)

优选

预选完成之后会得到一个Node的数组。如果预选合适的节点数大于1,则需要调用优选算法根据评分获取最优的节点。
优选算法调用的接口是PrioritizeNodes,使用与预选类似的多任务同步调用方式,采用MapReduce的思想,Map根据不同的优选算法获取对某一Node的值,根据Reduce统计最终的结果。

优选调度算法

优选调度算法默认代码在pkg/scheduler/algorithmprovider/defaults/defaults.go下,defaultPriorities方法返回的是默认的一系列优选算法,通过工厂模式处理相应的优选算法,代码如下

func defaultPriorities() sets.String {
	return sets.NewString(
		// spreads pods by minimizing the number of pods (belonging to the same service or replication controller) on the same node.
		factory.RegisterPriorityConfigFactory(
			"SelectorSpreadPriority",
			factory.PriorityConfigFactory{
				MapReduceFunction: func(args factory.PluginFactoryArgs) (algorithm.PriorityMapFunction, algorithm.PriorityReduceFunction) {
					return priorities.NewSelectorSpreadPriority(args.ServiceLister, args.ControllerLister, args.ReplicaSetLister, args.StatefulSetLister)
				},
				Weight: 1,
			},
		),
		// pods should be placed in the same topological domain (e.g. same node, same rack, same zone, same power domain, etc.)
		// as some other pods, or, conversely, should not be placed in the same topological domain as some other pods.
		factory.RegisterPriorityConfigFactory(
			"InterPodAffinityPriority",
			factory.PriorityConfigFactory{
				Function: func(args factory.PluginFactoryArgs) algorithm.PriorityFunction {
					return priorities.NewInterPodAffinityPriority(args.NodeInfo, args.NodeLister, args.PodLister, args.HardPodAffinitySymmetricWeight)
				},
				Weight: 1,
			},
		),

		// Prioritize nodes by least requested utilization.
		factory.RegisterPriorityFunction2("LeastRequestedPriority", priorities.LeastRequestedPriorityMap, nil, 1),

		// Prioritizes nodes to help achieve balanced resource usage
		factory.RegisterPriorityFunction2("BalancedResourceAllocation", priorities.BalancedResourceAllocationMap, nil, 1),

		// Set this weight large enough to override all other priority functions.
		// TODO: Figure out a better way to do this, maybe at same time as fixing #24720.
		factory.RegisterPriorityFunction2("NodePreferAvoidPodsPriority", priorities.CalculateNodePreferAvoidPodsPriorityMap, nil, 10000),

		// Prioritizes nodes that have labels matching NodeAffinity
		factory.RegisterPriorityFunction2("NodeAffinityPriority", priorities.CalculateNodeAffinityPriorityMap, priorities.CalculateNodeAffinityPriorityReduce, 1),

		// Prioritizes nodes that marked with taint which pod can tolerate.
		factory.RegisterPriorityFunction2("TaintTolerationPriority", priorities.ComputeTaintTolerationPriorityMap, priorities.ComputeTaintTolerationPriorityReduce, 1),

		// ImageLocalityPriority prioritizes nodes that have images requested by the pod present.
		factory.RegisterPriorityFunction2("ImageLocalityPriority", priorities.ImageLocalityPriorityMap, nil, 1),
	)
}
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用到的优选算法通过代码结构基本可以看出

每一个不同的优选策略独立成一个单独的文件。
通过优选之后,调用selectHost方法获取分数最高的Node。如果多个Node分数相同,则使用轮询的方式得到最终的Node。

抢占调度

当通过正常的调度流程如果没有找到合适的节点(主要是预选没有合适的节点),会判断需不需要进行抢占调度,具体的代码在pkg/scheduler/scheduler.go文件下,用到的方法preempt,具体如下:

// preempt tries to create room for a pod that has failed to schedule, by preempting lower priority pods if possible.
// If it succeeds, it adds the name of the node where preemption has happened to the pod annotations.
// It returns the node name and an error if any.
// ---
// preempt尽可能的通过去抢占低优先级的Pod的空间,为调度失败的Pod创造空间
// 如果成功了,就会去添加在Pod注解中声明的Node名称
// 返回Node名称和错误(如果有错误的话)
func (sched *Scheduler) preempt(preemptor *v1.Pod, scheduleErr error) (string, error) {

	// 1.判断是否开启Pod优先级,调度器是否配置了DisablePreemption,两者中任一满足即停止抢占
	if !util.PodPriorityEnabled() || sched.config.DisablePreemption {
		klog.V(3).Infof("Pod priority feature is not enabled or preemption is disabled by scheduler configuration." +
			" No preemption is performed.")
		return "", nil
	}
	// 2.获取待抢占Pod的信息
	preemptor, err := sched.config.PodPreemptor.GetUpdatedPod(preemptor)
	if err != nil {
		klog.Errorf("Error getting the updated preemptor pod object: %v", err)
		return "", err
	}

	// 3.根据配置的算法获取抢占的节点
	// 获取到的四个参数
	// 1.抢占获取到的Node
	// 2.需要被删除掉的低优先级的Pod列表
	// 3.需要删除掉的nominatedPods列表
	// 4.错误信息
	node, victims, nominatedPodsToClear, err := sched.config.Algorithm.Preempt(preemptor, sched.config.NodeLister, scheduleErr)
	metrics.PreemptionVictims.Set(float64(len(victims)))
	if err != nil {
		klog.Errorf("Error preempting victims to make room for %v/%v.", preemptor.Namespace, preemptor.Name)
		return "", err
	}
	var nodeName = ""
	if node != nil {
		// 1.将Pod和Node结合,更新相应的信息(Pod的nodeName有值),并且构造apiserver的调用
		// 2.所有的将要被删除的Pod一一被删除
		// 只有两者都满足了,才能保证抢占成功
		nodeName = node.Name
		// Update the scheduling queue with the nominated pod information. Without
		// this, there would be a race condition between the next scheduling cycle
		// and the time the scheduler receives a Pod Update for the nominated pod.
		sched.config.SchedulingQueue.UpdateNominatedPodForNode(preemptor, nodeName)

		// Make a call to update nominated node name of the pod on the API server.
		err = sched.config.PodPreemptor.SetNominatedNodeName(preemptor, nodeName)
		if err != nil {
			klog.Errorf("Error in preemption process. Cannot update pod %v/%v annotations: %v", preemptor.Namespace, preemptor.Name, err)
			sched.config.SchedulingQueue.DeleteNominatedPodIfExists(preemptor)
			return "", err
		}

		for _, victim := range victims {
			if err := sched.config.PodPreemptor.DeletePod(victim); err != nil {
				klog.Errorf("Error preempting pod %v/%v: %v", victim.Namespace, victim.Name, err)
				return "", err
			}
			sched.config.Recorder.Eventf(victim, v1.EventTypeNormal, "Preempted", "by %v/%v on node %v", preemptor.Namespace, preemptor.Name, nodeName)
		}
	}
	// Clearing nominated pods should happen outside of "if node != nil". Node could
	// be nil when a pod with nominated node name is eligible to preempt again,
	// but preemption logic does not find any node for it. In that case Preempt()
	// function of generic_scheduler.go returns the pod itself for removal of the annotation.
	// 4.删除nominatedPods,不要求一定成功,对整体结果不影响
	for _, p := range nominatedPodsToClear {
		rErr := sched.config.PodPreemptor.RemoveNominatedNodeName(p)
		if rErr != nil {
			klog.Errorf("Cannot remove nominated node annotation of pod: %v", rErr)
			// We do not return as this error is not critical.
		}
	}
	return nodeName, err
}
复制代码

整体代码结构比较清晰,有如下几个步骤:
1、判断是否需要进行抢占调度,主要有两个判断项(PodPriority是否开启、调度器是否配置DisablePreemption),两者缺一不可;
2、获取待抢占调度Pod配置的信息;
3、通过配置算法的抢占策略获取抢占调度的结果(最核心的步骤);
4、收尾工作(更新Pod的信息、删除低优先级的Pod、删除一些资源如nominatedPods)
整个过程最核心的是调度算法获取调度结果的接口,同预选优选一样,默认的调度实现均在generic_scheduler.go文件,方法是Preempt
Preempt方法返回四个参数,分别是
1)Preempt得到的Node;
2)被抢占的Pod的列表(待删除);
3)将要被清除的nominatedPods(待清除);
4)可能返回的error消息
Preempt方法主要执行以下几个步骤:
1、从预选失败的节点中获取可以用来做抢占调度的节点,通过一个switch语句排除不可以用来做抢占调度的节点

如图,只要预选失败的原因处于上述的错误原因均不能再做抢占调度节点;
2、获取PDB(Pod中断预算)列表,用来做后续的判断标准;
3、通过调用selectNodesForPreemption方法,判断哪些Node可以进行抢占调度。通过ParallelizeUntil方法同步对所有的Node进行判断,判断路径为checkNode-->selectVictimsOnNode-->podFitsOnNode,最终同预选方法类似,使用了podFitsOnNode方法。不同于普通预选,抢占调度会先对Pod优先级判断,然后在移除掉优先级较低的Pod之后再调用podFitsOnNode方法,以此达到抢占的效果。selectNodesForPreemption方法返回的参数是一个map类型的值,key为Node信息,value为该Node如果作为调度节点,将要清除的一些信息,包括Pods和PDB信息

4、获取到抢占调度可以实现的Nodes资源后,继续通过扩展的算法进行过滤;
5、选中最终的抢占调度的Node,调用pickOneNodeForPreemption方法,主要基于5个原则:
a)PDB violations(违规)值最小的Node;
b)挑选具有最低优先级受害者的节点,即被清除的Node上的Pods,它的优先级是最低的;
c)通过所有受害者Pods(将被删除的低优先级Pods)的优先级总和做区分;
d)如果多个Node优先级总和仍然相等,则选择具有最小受害者数量的Node;
e)如果多个Node优先级总和仍然相等,则选择第一个这样的Node(随机排序);
6、选中最终的Node之后,记录该Node上优先级较低的NominatedPods,这些Pod还未调度,需要将其调度关系进行删除,重新应用。代码如下:

// preempt finds nodes with pods that can be preempted to make room for "pod" to
// schedule. It chooses one of the nodes and preempts the pods on the node and
// returns 1) the node, 2) the list of preempted pods if such a node is found,
// 3) A list of pods whose nominated node name should be cleared, and 4) any
// possible error.
// Preempt does not update its snapshot. It uses the same snapshot used in the
// scheduling cycle. This is to avoid a scenario where preempt finds feasible
// nodes without preempting any pod. When there are many pending pods in the
// scheduling queue a nominated pod will go back to the queue and behind
// other pods with the same priority. The nominated pod prevents other pods from
// using the nominated resources and the nominated pod could take a long time
// before it is retried after many other pending pods.
func (g *genericScheduler) Preempt(pod *v1.Pod, nodeLister algorithm.NodeLister, scheduleErr error) (*v1.Node, []*v1.Pod, []*v1.Pod, error) {
	// Scheduler may return various types of errors. Consider preemption only if
	// the error is of type FitError.
	fitError, ok := scheduleErr.(*FitError)
	if !ok || fitError == nil {
		return nil, nil, nil, nil
	}
	if !podEligibleToPreemptOthers(pod, g.cachedNodeInfoMap) {
		klog.V(5).Infof("Pod %v/%v is not eligible for more preemption.", pod.Namespace, pod.Name)
		return nil, nil, nil, nil
	}
	allNodes, err := nodeLister.List()
	if err != nil {
		return nil, nil, nil, err
	}
	if len(allNodes) == 0 {
		return nil, nil, nil, ErrNoNodesAvailable
	}
	// 1.获取预选调度失败的节点,但是可能是潜在的抢占可能成功的节点(所有的抢占节点都是在潜在节点内部选择)
	potentialNodes := nodesWherePreemptionMightHelp(allNodes, fitError.FailedPredicates)
	if len(potentialNodes) == 0 {
		klog.V(3).Infof("Preemption will not help schedule pod %v/%v on any node.", pod.Namespace, pod.Name)
		// In this case, we should clean-up any existing nominated node name of the pod.
		return nil, nil, []*v1.Pod{pod}, nil
	}
	// 2.获取PDB(Pod中断预算)列表
	pdbs, err := g.pdbLister.List(labels.Everything())
	if err != nil {
		return nil, nil, nil, err
	}
	// 3.获取所有可以进行Preempt的Node节点的信息,主要包含该节点哪些Pod需要被抢占掉
	nodeToVictims, err := selectNodesForPreemption(pod, g.cachedNodeInfoMap, potentialNodes, g.predicates,
		g.predicateMetaProducer, g.schedulingQueue, pdbs)
	if err != nil {
		return nil, nil, nil, err
	}

	// We will only check nodeToVictims with extenders that support preemption.
	// Extenders which do not support preemption may later prevent preemptor from being scheduled on the nominated
	// node. In that case, scheduler will find a different host for the preemptor in subsequent scheduling cycles.
	// 4.扩展的Preempt调度判断
	nodeToVictims, err = g.processPreemptionWithExtenders(pod, nodeToVictims)
	if err != nil {
		return nil, nil, nil, err
	}

	// 5.选中某一个Node
	candidateNode := pickOneNodeForPreemption(nodeToVictims)
	if candidateNode == nil {
		return nil, nil, nil, err
	}

	// Lower priority pods nominated to run on this node, may no longer fit on
	// this node. So, we should remove their nomination. Removing their
	// nomination updates these pods and moves them to the active queue. It
	// lets scheduler find another place for them.
	// 6.判断哪些Pod优先级较低,后续需要被清除掉,不作为NominatedPods存在
	nominatedPods := g.getLowerPriorityNominatedPods(pod, candidateNode.Name)
	if nodeInfo, ok := g.cachedNodeInfoMap[candidateNode.Name]; ok {
		return nodeInfo.Node(), nodeToVictims[candidateNode].Pods, nominatedPods, err
	}

	return nil, nil, nil, fmt.Errorf(
		"preemption failed: the target node %s has been deleted from scheduler cache",
		candidateNode.Name)
}
复制代码

综上,抢占调度主要强调的一点是Pod的优先级。与普通调度不同的是,抢占调度对Pod做了明确的优先级区分,以此来达到抢占的目的。

选举

在Scheduler启动的时候,需要判断是否需要做选主操作。配置选举操作很简单,只需要在配置文件中添加--leader-elect=true即可。代码中,如果检测到了配置选举,则首先会参加选举,只有拿到主节点的scheduler才能执行调度相关工作。
选举代码结构比较简单,如图,代码位于client-go包中,路径为client-go/tools/leaderelection/leaderelection.go

主要有三个函数le.acquire(ctx)le.renew(ctx)以及le.config.Callbacks.OnStartedLeading(ctx)
acquire表示是否选主成功,只有成功了之后,才能执行OnStartedLeadingrenewOnStartedLeading是一个回调方法,执行的就是scheduler的run方法。
renew主要做选主的更新操作。当节点上的scheduler被选主时,还需要不断的更新信息,判断是否主节点功能正常。
进入acquire或者renew方法,有一个共同的调用方法是tryAcquireOrRenew,该方法就是整个选举的核心实现。
tryAcquireOrRenew顾名思义,如果没有获取到租约,就去获取leader的租约,否则就去更新租约。主要有三部分操作:
1、调用Get操作获取是否存在ElectionRecord。如果不存在,则调用Create方法新建一个新的Endpoint,当前节点为scheduler的主节点,选举成功;否则,执行更新操作;
2、获取到记录,表明执行的是更新租约操作,需要验证当前节点的身份和时间,判断是否可以执行更新租约操作;
3、更新信息,执行Update操作,更新选主信息。

// tryAcquireOrRenew tries to acquire a leader lease if it is not already acquired,
// else it tries to renew the lease if it has already been acquired. Returns true
// on success else returns false.
// ---
// tryAcquireOrRenew,如果没有获取到租约,就去获取leader的租约,否则去更新租约。
func (le *LeaderElector) tryAcquireOrRenew() bool {
	now := metav1.Now()
	leaderElectionRecord := rl.LeaderElectionRecord{
		HolderIdentity:       le.config.Lock.Identity(),
		LeaseDurationSeconds: int(le.config.LeaseDuration / time.Second),
		RenewTime:            now,
		AcquireTime:          now,
	}

	// 1. obtain or create the ElectionRecord
	// 1. 调用Endpoint的Get操作,获取oldLeaderElectionRecord
	oldLeaderElectionRecord, err := le.config.Lock.Get()
	if err != nil {
		if !errors.IsNotFound(err) {
			klog.Errorf("error retrieving resource lock %v: %v", le.config.Lock.Describe(), err)
			return false
		}
		// 创建新的Endpoint
		if err = le.config.Lock.Create(leaderElectionRecord); err != nil {
			klog.Errorf("error initially creating leader election record: %v", err)
			return false
		}
		le.observedRecord = leaderElectionRecord
		le.observedTime = le.clock.Now()
		return true
	}

	// 2. Record obtained, check the Identity & Time
	// 2. 获取到了记录,检查下身份和时间信息,判断是否合法
	if !reflect.DeepEqual(le.observedRecord, *oldLeaderElectionRecord) {
		le.observedRecord = *oldLeaderElectionRecord
		le.observedTime = le.clock.Now()
	}
	if le.observedTime.Add(le.config.LeaseDuration).After(now.Time) &&
		!le.IsLeader() {
		klog.V(4).Infof("lock is held by %v and has not yet expired", oldLeaderElectionRecord.HolderIdentity)
		return false
	}

	// 3. We're going to try to update. The leaderElectionRecord is set to it's default
	// here. Let's correct it before updating.
	if le.IsLeader() {
		leaderElectionRecord.AcquireTime = oldLeaderElectionRecord.AcquireTime
		leaderElectionRecord.LeaderTransitions = oldLeaderElectionRecord.LeaderTransitions
	} else {
		leaderElectionRecord.LeaderTransitions = oldLeaderElectionRecord.LeaderTransitions + 1
	}

	// update the lock itself
	if err = le.config.Lock.Update(leaderElectionRecord); err != nil {
		klog.Errorf("Failed to update lock: %v", err)
		return false
	}
	le.observedRecord = leaderElectionRecord
	le.observedTime = le.clock.Now()
	return true
}
复制代码

Scheduler的选举操作比较简单,主要就是通过判断记录在Etcd中的Endpoints是否可以更新来判断是否可以进行选举。整个选举操作依赖于Etcd的特点来保证分布式操作的成功和唯一。在kube-system的namespace下可以查看相应的endpoint:kube-scheduler

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