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js设计模式

The Constructor Pattern

Basic Constructor

function Car( model, year, miles ) {
 
  this.model = model;
  this.year = year;
  this.miles = miles;
 
  this.toString = function () {
    return this.model + " has done " + this.miles + " miles";
  };
}
 
// Usage:
 
// We can create new instances of the car
var civic = new Car( "Honda Civic", 2009, 20000 );
var mondeo = new Car( "Ford Mondeo", 2010, 5000 );
 
// and then open our browser console to view the
// output of the toString() method being called on
// these objects
console.log( civic.toString() );
console.log( mondeo.toString() );
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Constructor with prototypes

上面的代码存在一个问题,就是每次创建新实例里面的方法都会被重新复写

function Car( model, year, miles ) {
 
  this.model = model;
  this.year = year;
  this.miles = miles;
 
}
 
 
// Note here that we are using Object.prototype.newMethod rather than
// Object.prototype so as to avoid redefining the prototype object
Car.prototype.toString = function () {
  return this.model + " has done " + this.miles + " miles";
};
 
// Usage:
 
var civic = new Car( "Honda Civic", 2009, 20000 );
var mondeo = new Car( "Ford Mondeo", 2010, 5000 );
 
console.log( civic.toString() );
console.log( mondeo.toString() );
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The Module Pattern

In JavaScript, the Module pattern is used to further emulate the concept of classes in such a way that we're able to include both public/private methods and variables inside a single object, thus shielding particular parts from the global scope. What this results in is a reduction in the likelihood of our function names conflicting with other functions defined in additional scripts on the page.

The Module pattern encapsulates "privacy", state and organization using closures. It provides a way of wrapping a mix of public and private methods and variables, protecting pieces from leaking into the global scope and accidentally colliding with another developer's interface. With this pattern, only a public API is returned, keeping everything else within the closure private.

var testModule = (function () {
 
  var counter = 0;
 
  return {
 
    incrementCounter: function () {
      return counter++;
    },
 
    resetCounter: function () {
      console.log( "counter value prior to reset: " + counter );
      counter = 0;
    }
  };
 
})();
 
// Usage:
 
// Increment our counter
testModule.incrementCounter();
 
// Check the counter value and reset
// Outputs: counter value prior to reset: 1
testModule.resetCounter();
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Advantages

We've seen why the Constructor pattern can be useful, but why is the Module pattern a good choice? For starters, it's a lot cleaner for developers coming from an object-oriented background than the idea of true encapsulation, at least from a JavaScript perspective.

Secondly, it supports private data - so, in the Module pattern, public parts of our code are able to touch the private parts, however the outside world is unable to touch the class's private parts (no laughing! Oh, and thanks to David Engfer for the joke).

Disadvantages

The disadvantages of the Module pattern are that as we access both public and private members differently, when we wish to change visibility, we actually have to make changes to each place the member was used.

We also can't access private members in methods that are added to the object at a later point. That said, in many cases the Module pattern is still quite useful and when used correctly, certainly has the potential to improve the structure of our application.

Other disadvantages include the inability to create automated unit tests for private members and additional complexity when bugs require hot fixes. It's simply not possible to patch privates. Instead, one must override all public methods which interact with the buggy privates. Developers can't easily extend privates either, so it's worth remembering privates are not as flexible as they may initially appear.

The Revealing Module Pattern

var myRevealingModule = (function () {
 
        var privateVar = "Ben Cherry",
            publicVar = "Hey there!";
 
        function privateFunction() {
            console.log( "Name:" + privateVar );
        }
 
        function publicSetName( strName ) {
            privateVar = strName;
        }
 
        function publicGetName() {
            privateFunction();
        }
 
 
        // Reveal public pointers to
        // private functions and properties
 
        return {
            setName: publicSetName,
            greeting: publicVar,
            getName: publicGetName
        };
 
    })();
 
myRevealingModule.setName( "Paul Kinlan" );
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Advantages

This pattern allows the syntax of our scripts to be more consistent. It also makes it more clear at the end of the module which of our functions and variables may be accessed publicly which eases readability.

Disadvantages

A disadvantage of this pattern is that if a private function refers to a public function, that public function can't be overridden if a patch is necessary. This is because the private function will continue to refer to the private implementation and the pattern doesn't apply to public members, only to functions.

Public object members which refer to private variables are also subject to the no-patch rule notes above.

As a result of this, modules created with the Revealing Module pattern may be more fragile than those created with the original Module pattern, so care should be taken during usage.

The Singleton Pattern

function Universe(){
    if(typeof Universe.instance==="object"){
        return Universe.instance; //防止被篡改
    }
    this.xx="xx";
    Universe.instance=this;
    return this;
}
var uni=new Universe();
var uni2=new Universe();
uni===uni2; //true
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var mySingleton = (function () {
 
  // Instance stores a reference to the Singleton
  var instance;
 
  function init() {
 
    // Singleton
 
    // Private methods and variables
    function privateMethod(){
        console.log( "I am private" );
    }
 
    var privateVariable = "Im also private";
 
    var privateRandomNumber = Math.random();
 
    return {
 
      // Public methods and variables
      publicMethod: function () {
        console.log( "The public can see me!" );
      },
 
      publicProperty: "I am also public",
 
      getRandomNumber: function() {
        return privateRandomNumber;
      }
 
    };
 
  };
 
  return {
 
    // Get the Singleton instance if one exists
    // or create one if it doesn't
    getInstance: function () {
 
      if ( !instance ) {
        instance = init();
      }
 
      return instance;
    }
 
  };
 
})();
var singleA = mySingleton.getInstance();
var singleB = mySingleton.getInstance();
console.log( singleA.getRandomNumber() === singleB.getRandomNumber() ); // true
 
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In practice, the Singleton pattern is useful when exactly one object is needed to coordinate others across a system. Here is one example with the pattern being used in this context:

var SingletonTester = (function () {
 
  // options: an object containing configuration options for the singleton
  // e.g var options = { name: "test", pointX: 5};
  function Singleton( options ) {
 
    // set options to the options supplied
    // or an empty object if none are provided
    options = options || {};
 
    // set some properties for our singleton
    this.name = "SingletonTester";
 
    this.pointX = options.pointX || 6;
 
    this.pointY = options.pointY || 10;
 
  }
 
  // our instance holder
  var instance;
 
  // an emulation of static variables and methods
  var _static = {
 
    name: "SingletonTester",
 
    // Method for getting an instance. It returns
    // a singleton instance of a singleton object
    getInstance: function( options ) {
      if( instance === undefined ) {
        instance = new Singleton( options );
      }
 
      return instance;
 
    }
  };
 
  return _static;
 
})();
 
var singletonTest = SingletonTester.getInstance({
  pointX: 5
});
 
// Log the output of pointX just to verify it is correct
// Outputs: 5
console.log( singletonTest.pointX );
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The Observer Pattern

首先定义观察者

function Observer(){
  this.update = function(){
    // ...
  };
}
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然后需要定义观察者数组

function ObserverList(){
  this.observerList = [];
}
 
ObserverList.prototype.add = function( obj ){
  return this.observerList.push( obj );
};
 
ObserverList.prototype.count = function(){
  return this.observerList.length;
};
 
ObserverList.prototype.get = function( index ){
  if( index > -1 && index < this.observerList.length ){
    return this.observerList[ index ];
  }
};
 
ObserverList.prototype.indexOf = function( obj, startIndex ){
  var i = startIndex;
 
  while( i < this.observerList.length ){
    if( this.observerList[i] === obj ){
      return i;
    }
    i++;
  }
 
  return -1;
};
 
ObserverList.prototype.removeAt = function( index ){
  this.observerList.splice( index, 1 );
};
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最后定义Subject

function Subject(){
  this.observers = new ObserverList();
}
 
Subject.prototype.addObserver = function( observer ){
  this.observers.add( observer );
};
 
Subject.prototype.removeObserver = function( observer ){
  this.observers.removeAt( this.observers.indexOf( observer, 0 ) );
};
 
Subject.prototype.notify = function( context ){
  var observerCount = this.observers.count();
  for(var i=0; i < observerCount; i++){
    this.observers.get(i).update( context );
  }
};
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function PubSub() {
 this.handlers = {};
}
PubSub.prototype = {
  // 订阅事件
  on: function(eventType, handler){
    var self = this;
    if(!(eventType in self.handlers)) {
      self.handlers[eventType] = [];
    }
    self.handlers[eventType].push(handler);
    return this;
  },
   // 触发事件(发布事件)
  emit: function(eventType){
    var self = this;
    var handlerArgs = Array.prototype.slice.call(arguments,1);
    for(var i = 0; i < self.handlers[eventType].length; i++) {
     self.handlers[eventType][i].apply(self,handlerArgs);
    }
    return self;
  },
  // 删除订阅事件
  off: function(eventType, handler){
    var currentEvent = this.handlers[eventType];
    var len = 0;
    if (currentEvent) {
      len = currentEvent.length;
      for (var i = len - 1; i >= 0; i--){
        if (currentEvent[i] === handler){
          currentEvent.splice(i, 1);
        }
      }
    }
    return this;
  }
};
var pubsub = new PubSub();
var callback = function(data){
  console.log(data);
};
//订阅事件A
pubsub.on('A', function(data){
  console.log(1 + data);
});
pubsub.on('A', function(data){
  console.log(2 + data);
});
pubsub.on('A', callback);
//触发事件A
pubsub.emit('A', '我是参数');
//删除事件A的订阅源callback
pubsub.off('A', callback);
pubsub.emit('A', '我是第二次调用的参数');
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disadvantage

Consequently, some of the issues with these patterns actually stem from their main benefits. In Publish/Subscribe, by decoupling publishers from subscribers, it can sometimes become difficult to obtain guarantees that particular parts of our applications are functioning as we may expect.

For example, publishers may make an assumption that one or more subscribers are listening to them. Say that we're using such an assumption to log or output errors regarding some application process. If the subscriber performing the logging crashes (or for some reason fails to function), the publisher won't have a way of seeing this due to the decoupled nature of the system.

Another draw-back of the pattern is that subscribers are quite ignorant to the existence of each other and are blind to the cost of switching publishers. Due to the dynamic relationship between subscribers and publishers, the update dependency can be difficult to track.

The Mediator Pattern

实际例子:飞机塔台,DOM事件代理 A Mediator is an object that coordinates interactions (logic and behavior) between multiple objects. It makes decisions on when to call which objects, based on the actions (or inaction) of other objects and input.

In the case of the mediator, though, the business logic and workflow is aggregated into the mediator itself. The mediator decides when an object should have its methods called and attributes updated based on factors that the mediator knows about. It encapsulates the workflow and process, coordinating multiple objects to produce the desired system behaviour. The individual objects involved in this workflow each know how to perform their own task. But it’s the mediator that tells the objects when to perform the tasks by making decisions at a higher level than the individual objects.

The Prototype Pattern

var myCar = {
 
  name: "Ford Escort",
 
  drive: function () {
    console.log( "Weeee. I'm driving!" );
  },
 
  panic: function () {
    console.log( "Wait. How do you stop this thing?" );
  }
 
};
 
// Use Object.create to instantiate a new car
var yourCar = Object.create( myCar );
 
// Now we can see that one is a prototype of the other
console.log( yourCar.name );
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The Command Pattern

carManager.execute = function ( name ) {
    return carManager[name] && carManager[name].apply( carManager, [].slice.call(arguments, 1) );
};

carManager.execute( "arrangeViewing", "Ferrari", "14523" );
carManager.execute( "requestInfo", "Ford Mondeo", "54323" );
carManager.execute( "requestInfo", "Ford Escort", "34232" );
carManager.execute( "buyVehicle", "Ford Escort", "34232" );

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The Facade Pattern

When we put up a facade, we present an outward appearance to the world which may conceal a very different reality. This was the inspiration for the name behind the next pattern we're going to review - the Facade pattern. This pattern provides a convenient higher-level interface to a larger body of code, hiding its true underlying complexity. Think of it as simplifying the API being presented to other developers, something which almost always improves usability.

var addMyEvent = function( el,ev,fn ){
 
   if( el.addEventListener ){
            el.addEventListener( ev,fn, false );
      }else if(el.attachEvent){
            el.attachEvent( "on" + ev, fn );
      } else{
           el["on" + ev] = fn;
    }
 
};
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The Factory Pattern

function Car( options ) {
 
  // some defaults
  this.doors = options.doors || 4;
  this.state = options.state || "brand new";
  this.color = options.color || "silver";
 
}
 
// A constructor for defining new trucks
function Truck( options){
 
  this.state = options.state || "used";
  this.wheelSize = options.wheelSize || "large";
  this.color = options.color || "blue";
}
 
 
// FactoryExample.js
 
// Define a skeleton vehicle factory
function VehicleFactory() {}
 
// Define the prototypes and utilities for this factory
 
// Our default vehicleClass is Car
VehicleFactory.prototype.vehicleClass = Car;
 
// Our Factory method for creating new Vehicle instances
VehicleFactory.prototype.createVehicle = function ( options ) {
 
  switch(options.vehicleType){
    case "car":
      this.vehicleClass = Car;
      break;
    case "truck":
      this.vehicleClass = Truck;
      break;
    //defaults to VehicleFactory.prototype.vehicleClass (Car)
  }
 
  return new this.vehicleClass( options );
 
};
 
// Create an instance of our factory that makes cars
var carFactory = new VehicleFactory();
var car = carFactory.createVehicle( {
            vehicleType: "car",
            color: "yellow",
            doors: 6 } );
 
// Test to confirm our car was created using the vehicleClass/prototype Car
 
// Outputs: true
console.log( car instanceof Car );
 
// Outputs: Car object of color "yellow", doors: 6 in a "brand new" state
console.log( car );

var movingTruck = carFactory.createVehicle( {
                      vehicleType: "truck",
                      state: "like new",
                      color: "red",
                      wheelSize: "small" } );
 
// Test to confirm our truck was created with the vehicleClass/prototype Truck
 
// Outputs: true
console.log( movingTruck instanceof Truck );
 
// Outputs: Truck object of color "red", a "like new" state
// and a "small" wheelSize
console.log( movingTruck );

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The Factory pattern can be especially useful when applied to the following situations:

  • When our object or component setup involves a high level of complexity
  • When we need to easily generate different instances of objects depending on the environment we are in
  • When we're working with many small objects or components that share the same properties
  • When composing objects with instances of other objects that need only satisfy an API contract (aka, duck typing) to work. This is useful for decoupling.

Abstract Factories

var abstractVehicleFactory = (function () {
 
  // Storage for our vehicle types
  var types = {};
 
  return {
      getVehicle: function ( type, customizations ) {
          var Vehicle = types[type];
 
          return (Vehicle ? new Vehicle(customizations) : null);
      },
 
      registerVehicle: function ( type, Vehicle ) {
          var proto = Vehicle.prototype;
 
          // only register classes that fulfill the vehicle contract
          if ( proto.drive && proto.breakDown ) {
              types[type] = Vehicle;
          }
 
          return abstractVehicleFactory;
      }
  };
})();
 
 
// Usage:
 
abstractVehicleFactory.registerVehicle( "car", Car );
abstractVehicleFactory.registerVehicle( "truck", Truck );
 
// Instantiate a new car based on the abstract vehicle type
var car = abstractVehicleFactory.getVehicle( "car", {
            color: "lime green",
            state: "like new" } );
 
// Instantiate a new truck in a similar manner
var truck = abstractVehicleFactory.getVehicle( "truck", {
            wheelSize: "medium",
            color: "neon yellow" } );
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The Mixin Pattern

var Person = function( firstName, lastName ){
 
  this.firstName = firstName;
  this.lastName = lastName;
  this.gender = "male";
 
};

var clark = new Person( "Clark", "Kent" );
 
// Define a subclass constructor for for "Superhero":
var Superhero = function( firstName, lastName, powers ){
 
    // Invoke the superclass constructor on the new object
    // then use .call() to invoke the constructor as a method of
    // the object to be initialized.
 
    Person.call( this, firstName, lastName );
 
    // Finally, store their powers, a new array of traits not found in a normal "Person"
    this.powers = powers;
};
 
Superhero.prototype = Object.create( Person.prototype );
var superman = new Superhero( "Clark", "Kent", ["flight","heat-vision"] );
console.log( superman );
 
// Outputs Person attributes as well as powers
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The Decorator Pattern

The Decorator pattern isn't heavily tied to how objects are created but instead focuses on the problem of extending their functionality. Rather than just relying on prototypal inheritance, we work with a single base object and progressively add decorator objects which provide the additional capabilities. The idea is that rather than sub-classing, we add (decorate) properties or methods to a base object so it's a little more streamlined.

Adding new attributes to objects in JavaScript is a very straight-forward process so with this in mind, a very simplistic decorator may be implemented as follows:

function Vehicle( vehicleType ){
 
    // some sane defaults
    this.vehicleType = vehicleType || "car";
    this.model = "default";
    this.license = "00000-000";
 
}
 
// Test instance for a basic vehicle
var testInstance = new Vehicle( "car" );
console.log( testInstance );
 
// Outputs:
// vehicle: car, model:default, license: 00000-000
 
// Lets create a new instance of vehicle, to be decorated
var truck = new Vehicle( "truck" );
 
// New functionality we're decorating vehicle with
truck.setModel = function( modelName ){
    this.model = modelName;
};
 
truck.setColor = function( color ){
    this.color = color;
};
 
// Test the value setters and value assignment works correctly
truck.setModel( "CAT" );
truck.setColor( "blue" );
 
console.log( truck );
 
// Outputs:
// vehicle:truck, model:CAT, color: blue
 
// Demonstrate "vehicle" is still unaltered
var secondInstance = new Vehicle( "car" );
console.log( secondInstance );
 
// Outputs:
// vehicle: car, model:default, license: 00000-000
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// The constructor to decorate
function MacBook() {
 
  this.cost = function () { return 997; };
  this.screenSize = function () { return 11.6; };
 
}
 
// Decorator 1
function memory( macbook ) {
 
  var v = macbook.cost();
  macbook.cost = function() {
    return v + 75;
  };
 
}
 
// Decorator 2
function engraving( macbook ){
 
  var v = macbook.cost();
  macbook.cost = function(){
    return v + 200;
  };
 
}
 
// Decorator 3
function insurance( macbook ){
 
  var v = macbook.cost();
  macbook.cost = function(){
     return v + 250;
  };
 
}
 
var mb = new MacBook();
memory( mb );
engraving( mb );
insurance( mb );
 
// Outputs: 1522
console.log( mb.cost() );
 
// Outputs: 11.6
console.log( mb.screenSize() );
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The Flyweight Pattern

Each book would thus be represented as follows, prior to any optimization using the Flyweight pattern:

var Book = function( id, title, author, genre, pageCount,publisherID, ISBN, checkoutDate, checkoutMember, dueReturnDate,availability ){
 
   this.id = id;
   this.title = title;
   this.author = author;
   this.genre = genre;
   this.pageCount = pageCount;
   this.publisherID = publisherID;
   this.ISBN = ISBN;
   this.checkoutDate = checkoutDate;
   this.checkoutMember = checkoutMember;
   this.dueReturnDate = dueReturnDate;
   this.availability = availability;
 
};
 
Book.prototype = {
 
  getTitle: function () {
     return this.title;
  },
 
  getAuthor: function () {
     return this.author;
  },
 
  getISBN: function (){
     return this.ISBN;
  },
 
  // For brevity, other getters are not shown
  updateCheckoutStatus: function( bookID, newStatus, checkoutDate, checkoutMember, newReturnDate ){
 
     this.id = bookID;
     this.availability = newStatus;
     this.checkoutDate = checkoutDate;
     this.checkoutMember = checkoutMember;
     this.dueReturnDate = newReturnDate;
 
  },
 
  extendCheckoutPeriod: function( bookID, newReturnDate ){
 
      this.id = bookID;
      this.dueReturnDate = newReturnDate;
 
  },
 
  isPastDue: function(bookID){
 
     var currentDate = new Date();
     return currentDate.getTime() > Date.parse( this.dueReturnDate );
 
   }
};
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This probably works fine initially for small collections of books, however as the library expands to include a larger inventory with multiple versions and copies of each book available, we may find the management system running slower and slower over time. Using thousands of book objects may overwhelm the available memory, but we can optimize our system using the Flyweight pattern to improve this.

We can now separate our data into intrinsic and extrinsic states as follows: data relevant to the book object (title, author etc) is intrinsic whilst the checkout data (checkoutMember, dueReturnDate etc) is considered extrinsic. Effectively this means that only one Book object is required for each combination of book properties. it's still a considerable quantity of objects, but significantly fewer than we had previously.

The following single instance of our book meta-data combinations will be shared among all of the copies of a book with a particular title.

var Book = function ( title, author, genre, pageCount, publisherID, ISBN ) {
 
    this.title = title;
    this.author = author;
    this.genre = genre;
    this.pageCount = pageCount;
    this.publisherID = publisherID;
    this.ISBN = ISBN;
 
};
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As we can see, the extrinsic states have been removed. Everything to do with library check-outs will be moved to a manager and as the object data is now segmented, a factory can be used for instantiation.

Let's now define a very basic factory. What we're going to have it do is perform a check to see if a book with a particular title has been previously created inside the system; if it has, we'll return it - if not, a new book will be created and stored so that it can be accessed later. This makes sure that we only create a single copy of each unique intrinsic piece of data:

var BookFactory = (function () {
  var existingBooks = {}, existingBook;
 
  return {
    createBook: function ( title, author, genre, pageCount, publisherID, ISBN ) {
 
      // Find out if a particular book meta-data combination has been created before
      // !! or (bang bang) forces a boolean to be returned
      existingBook = existingBooks[ISBN];
      if ( !!existingBook ) {
        return existingBook;
      } else {
 
        // if not, let's create a new instance of the book and store it
        var book = new Book( title, author, genre, pageCount, publisherID, ISBN );
        existingBooks[ISBN] = book;
        return book;
 
      }
    }
  };
 
})();
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Managing the extrinsic states

Next, we need to store the states that were removed from the Book objects somewhere - luckily a manager (which we'll be defining as a Singleton) can be used to encapsulate them. Combinations of a Book object and the library member that's checked them out will be called Book records. Our manager will be storing both and will also include checkout related logic we stripped out during our flyweight optimization of the Book class.

var BookRecordManager = (function () {
 
  var bookRecordDatabase = {};
 
  return {
    // add a new book into the library system
    addBookRecord: function ( id, title, author, genre, pageCount, publisherID, ISBN, checkoutDate, checkoutMember, dueReturnDate, availability ) {
 
      var book = BookFactory.createBook( title, author, genre, pageCount, publisherID, ISBN );
 
      bookRecordDatabase[id] = {
        checkoutMember: checkoutMember,
        checkoutDate: checkoutDate,
        dueReturnDate: dueReturnDate,
        availability: availability,
        book: book
      };
    },
    updateCheckoutStatus: function ( bookID, newStatus, checkoutDate, checkoutMember, newReturnDate ) {
 
      var record = bookRecordDatabase[bookID];
      record.availability = newStatus;
      record.checkoutDate = checkoutDate;
      record.checkoutMember = checkoutMember;
      record.dueReturnDate = newReturnDate;
    },
 
    extendCheckoutPeriod: function ( bookID, newReturnDate ) {
      bookRecordDatabase[bookID].dueReturnDate = newReturnDate;
    },
 
    isPastDue: function ( bookID ) {
      var currentDate = new Date();
      return currentDate.getTime() > Date.parse( bookRecordDatabase[bookID].dueReturnDate );
    }
  };
 
})();
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MVC Pattern

  • A Model represented domain-specific data and was ignorant of the user-interface (Views and Controllers). When a model changed, it would inform its observers.
  • A View represented the current state of a Model. The Observer pattern was used for letting the View know whenever the Model was updated or modified.
  • Presentation was taken care of by the View, but there wasn't just a single View and Controller - a View-Controller pair was required for each section or element being displayed on the screen.
  • The Controllers role in this pair was handling user interaction (such as key-presses and actions e.g. clicks), making decisions for the View.

Models

Models manage the data for an application. They are concerned with neither the user-interface nor presentation layers but instead represent unique forms of data that an application may require. When a model changes (e.g when it is updated), it will typically notify its observers (e.g views, a concept we will cover shortly) that a change has occurred so that they may react accordingly.

所有的通信都是单向的,按钮能够控制网络更新,但是网络类不能更改界面。网络类能更新数据,但是数据类不能控制网络,数据类能更新界面,但是界面类不能更新数据

Views

Views are a visual representation of models that present a filtered view of their current state. Whilst Smalltalk views are about painting and maintaining a bitmap, JavaScript views are about building and maintaining a DOM element.

Controllers

Controllers are an intermediary between models and views which are classically responsible for updating the model when the user manipulates the view.

Remember that the controllers fulfill one role in MVC: the facilitation of the Strategy pattern for the view. In the Strategy pattern regard, the view delegates to the controller at the view's discretion. So, that's how the strategy pattern works. The view could delegate handling user events to the controller when the view sees fit. The view could delegate handling model change events to the controller if the view sees fit, but this is not the traditional role of the controller.

MVP

The P in MVP stands for presenter. It's a component which contains the user-interface business logic for the view. Unlike MVC, invocations from the view are delegated to the presenter, which are decoupled from the view and instead talk to it through an interface. This allows for all kinds of useful things such as being able to mock views in unit tests.

The most common implementation of MVP is one which uses a Passive View (a view which is for all intents and purposes "dumb"), containing little to no logic. If MVC and MVP are different it is because the C and P do different things. In MVP, the P observes models and updates views when models change. The P effectively binds models to views, a responsibility which was previously held by controllers in MVC.

各部分之间的通信都是双向的,而且view与model不直接发生联系。都是通过Presenter传递。

MVVM

MVVM 模式将 Presenter 改名为 ViewModel,基本上与 MVP 模式完全一致。

唯一的区别是,它采用双向绑定:Model的变动,自动反映在 ViewModel,反之亦然。 由于使用MVP会使Presenter中的代码逻辑变得臃肿,所有用ViewModel代替。ViewModel和View之间不是通信的关系而是绑定的关系。这意味着当你更新viewmodel层的数据的时候,view层会相应的变动ui。